|Journal of Theoretics
Feb/March 2001 Commentary
Note: We are pleased to offer this new section to our Journal readers. We
hope that it will be thought provoking. Jacob Ghitis, who has been a
previous contributor to the Journal, will lead us off with some thoughts
about gravity, inertia, and time's definitions.]
"Now" & "Instant"
The concept of "now"
is biologically based, and is very close to Real Time. Now is determined by
the fastest-acting enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, whose role is to allow for
the erasure of the last percept, in order to allow the next one to be
perceived. This procedure must be much more rapid than the frame sequence of
an electronic camcorder. Indeed, the enzyme acts within nanoseconds, so that real-time is somewhat
longer to allow for the percept
to travel from its origin to the integrating cerebral systems.
"Instant" is a physics
concept, derived from the fastest possible event. Being the travel of a
distance by light the fastest event, instant might be defined arbitrarily,
using standard units, like Planck's length. I am attempting to offer some
original ideas, without using complicated mathematics. For that reason, I
prefer to consider the time interval taken by the simplest chemical reaction
as the definition of instant, being in the range of femtoseconds (10-15
sec.). Thus, "instant" is one million times faster than
Moving now to light's speed, it
is contended that pushing a rod at one end can not transmit the signal to
its other end at zero time, that is, really instantaneously. The reasoning:
all rods are elastic, so that the push moves along them slower than light.
Perhaps this is true in the Newtonian realm. But, how can be explained that
cesium gas allows for photons to travel at increased rates? And how can it be
explained that entangled half-photons communicate "instantly?"
The purpose of this commentary
is to present the hypothesis that these processes at the quantum realm are
"rod-like" in nature, the "rod" being partially or
On the "Faster Than
Light" (FTL) phenomenon, I posit that the first cesium gaseous atom pushed by
the incoming photon transmits the specific signal along the partially
inelastic gas, resulting in the last cesium atom emitting almost instantly a
photon of basically the same properties. The incoming photon thus seems to
be traveling faster than light.*
Instantaneous-Communication Entanglement: I've posited that photons have a
wispy mass, made of "Physical Vibrations (PVs)."**
Thus, it is just one step further to postulate that the two halves of
a photon are always entangled by their
PVs, and that they continue to be entangled when they are being separated into two. The distance they can reach is thus limited, but their intercommunication is instantaneous because the PVs act as absolutely inelastic
Information about FTL cesium experiments can be seen at: Sept
2000 Scientific American "Unlimited Light" .
Website on the entangled photon experiments: http://info.uibk.ac.at/c/c7/c704/qo/photon/_teleport/index.html
(no longer valid link).
GRAVITY and INERTIA
Gravity is a pulling force, which may be analogized with the
vacuum effect. But while suction acts mechanically and unilaterally upon the
inertia of whatever is aspirated, gravity acts by means of fields of force
of interacting bodies. For a vacuum to act freely, the space evacuated must be
replaced equivalently. Gravity sets no conditions, because it is intrinsic
to mass. The field it creates is not observable, being imaginatively derived
from the observable magnetic field. It is as if the gravity field of
separate bodies acted mutually and reciprocally upon another intrinsic
quality of mass, which is denominated inertia.
Inertia, if so, is then "natural antigravity." An
object is made up of molecules whose individual inertias have, by several
means, coalesced into a single body. Inertia is a force that prevents the
lumping together of all mass by the force of gravity. Gravity and inertia
are properties of mass in proportionally equal strength that are being manifested
when interacting with other masses.
There is a basic difference
between these two forces: gravity is believed to act by means of a field of
force whose lines are presumable composed of attracting
"gravitons," while I posit that inertia is expressed by a field of
"antigravitons." However, this is not a repelling but a parrying
force or field. It has been taken for granted that celestial bodies are not
lumped together, without asking ourselves why. Inertia is the "antilumping"
force. At the quantum realm, gluons are said to be the entities that
maintain the gravitationally induced lumping that makes protium, while
mesons maintain the thermogravitationally induced lumping that forms heavier
The antilumping principle works
in biology with the red blood cells. They repel each other, through an electrostatic
negative force called "zeta potential." Once it
is neutralized by protamine that has been added to the test tube, the RBCs
agglutinate (clump) until saline is added, which indicates that the protamine
did not act through chemical bonding. This biological phenomenon shows coexistence in a body of externally directed
Momentum is the kinetic energy of mass in movement while
inertia is a force/field present also in static bodies. A body in movement
but not toward a gravitational attractor, acts as if its inertia is
increased, thus becoming less affected by gravity. This means that heavier
and faster moving objects are less subject to gravity's pull. The Moon has a
significant gravitational pull on Earth and the obverse even more, yet the
moon stays there because of its inertial field and velocity. Lesser-inertial
orbiting celestial bodies should be closer to their "orbiter",
unless they are still quite young since it is their formation by means of the
gravitational lumping that accreted their component dust. Also, if they
happen to be pieces of rock from other celestial bodies, as I posit happens
to be the case of Pluto. In this latter case, the moving rock's inertia,
which may be equated to its momentum is unaffected by gravity and prevents it from
further gravitational "slavery" by the Sun.
Big Bang (B.B.) is a complex postulate explaining the Universe's
creation from a fiery explosion of a primordial object the size of a pin's
point or a grapefruit. The basic flaws of such postulate are the
impossibility of accepting that heat and light could exist before matter was
created, and that it glosses over why most of the hydrogen remained
Big Expansion (B.E.) is the name I suggest for ideas expressed by myself
and others that postulates a cold and dark expansion of a
Primal Singularity. It is my purpose to further delve on this postulate in
as a concise manner as possible, being the subject so complex.
I am mostly moved by my personal
negative reaction to certain concepts. The very idea of a "dark"
energy unattached to mass is repellent. I have suggested on good basis, that
dark matter is hydrogen whose electrons are "dormant" (1). I will
now offer an explanation for the increasing expansion rate of the Universe,
allowing for the irrelevancy of suggestions on vacuum energy, quintessence,
dark energy and a cosmological (lambda) constant. Lately, opinions from
expert theorists hint of kabalistic stuff, such as the "something from
nothing" ("Yesh meayin" in Hebrew, "Creatio ex nihilum"
in Latin, "Virtual particles fleetingly popping up," in English).
Also, an anthropocentric ("anthropic") twist supposes that the
universe is changing, perhaps not coincidentally, with the appearance of
H. sapiens. Such idea revives the Sophist's saying, "Man is the measure
of all things." Variables have also been proposed, which can adapt
themselves or ought to be maneuvered, so that the universe can be explained
the way it happens to be.
The explanation of the very
existence of the Universe gave rise to different myths of creation by widely
separated peoples' minds since the beginning of abstract thought. I have
published some ideas on why it is not possible to know the true explanation
(2). The following is my up-to-date view of cosmogony:
Instantly after the beginning,
the Primal Singularity exploded silently, coldly and darkly. Pairs of
Primal Particles (Physical Vibrations, PVs) scattered in all directions,
opening space. Soon these particles coalesced into groups of concentric
clouds of protium, which gave rise to stars, galaxies, and successively more
complex clusters of hot and luminous bodies.
Most of the protium clouds
remained intact between the galaxies.
All layers of such complex
bodies obeyed the newly created laws of physics, according to their relative
position in space. Those at the fringes were the fastest ones, impulsed by
the jet-like energy of their component stars, accelerating as they became
constantly less reined in by their neighbors at their sides and behind.
Such, in a nutshell, is what
has happened since some 15 billion years ago up to the moment of this
I have posited that all energy
derives from the spin of the PVs, and that the gravitational force is the
result of the opposite spins of electrons and positrons inside the quarks
(3). I posit now that the spinning electrons effect the gravity field, while
the spinning positrons effect the just posited inertial field. These fields
are influenced by the localization of the bodies in relation to the
periphery of the universe.
The not unreasonable proposal of
spin as the source of all energy and as the creator of fields serves as a
unifying bridge in Theoretics, and as explanatory of the spinís existence.
It was proposed a long time ago
that the gravity law of inverse squares fails at a certain distance, and I
accept this, on the basis of "critical points" of a physical
property. There ought to be a constant value that correlates the inertia of
an orbiting body, expressed as angular momentum with the distance from its
I have posited that the amount
of mass present in the primal singularity that gave rise to the B.E.
dictates the ultimate volume of the universe. It is not difficult to
envision that nearing that limit, the frontier galaxies will mostly have
become huge black holes, thus increasing their gravitational pull on the
galaxies following behind, which will join them to successively augment the
effect on the following ones. Irremisively, space will close down as the
centripetal gravity returns the universe to the original state of the primal
singularity. The universe, if it is a closed system, will always contain the same
amount of mass and energy.
As the last black hole is accreted, the density of the mass
will reach the critical point when the centripetal pressure compresses it to
its final state, the original primal singularity. Its
volume can not be imagined, because space has ceased to exist at the very
moment of such implosion and volume has thus becoming a meaningless concept. The
singularity ceases to be made of just compacted matter, because matter is
fractured into its original constituents, and the singularity becomes a
conglomerate of Primal Particle pairs (Physical Vibrations, PVs). Without a
lapse, again a singular explosion --not fiery but silent, cold and dark,
i.e., an expansion-- will follow the implosion, space, and volume again
acquiring meaning, and time starting a new circle. The absorbed crushing
gravitational energy will now revert from implosive to explosive, scattering
the primal particle pairs of the singularity in all directions.
These PVs subsequently accrete, by centripetal gravitational
pressure, to initially become nonmaterial mass (nm) with its spin energy and
then protium and some deuterium. Matter (M), made of material mass (m) and
potential atomic energy (E) will thus be created anew, allowing
gravitational pressure to form helium and derivative binding gluons. Entropy
of the first kind will again announce its arrival as follows. In the
fusional process that creates stars, part of the parental hydrogen mass (m)
reverts to protomass (pm), i.e., PVs, while its associated potential atomic
energy (E) becomes photonic energy (pE), which is actually electricity with
its associated electromagnetic properties, giving rise to photons (3). Time,
as we are capable of conceiving it now, restarts at that moment, as a
dimension of energy.
The electrons of most of the
formed hydrogen will remain dormant waiting the signal to activate and
become new star fuel, thus constituting "dark" matter that is detectable
only by its gravitational virtues. The Universe becomes a new a well-defined
system, in which the electromagnetic radiations, particularly microwaves,
play the role of messengers and supervisors surveying all the universe's
ambits, waking as needed dormant hydrogen electrons and transporting and
delivering energy and matter to the electrons of all recipient atoms.
It is therefore true that matter and energy are not destroyed, only transformed back
Just some thoughts?o:p>
Jacob Ghitis <email@example.com>
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