Journal of Theoretics

Feb/March 2001 Commentary


[Editorial Note: We are pleased to offer this new section to our Journal readers. We hope that it will be thought provoking. Jacob Ghitis, who has been a previous contributor to the Journal, will lead us off with some thoughts about gravity, inertia, and time's definitions.] 

TIME:  "Now" & "Instant"

The concept of  "now" is biologically based, and is very close to Real Time. Now is determined by the fastest-acting enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, whose role is to allow for the erasure of the last percept, in order to allow the next one to be perceived. This procedure must be much more rapid than the frame sequence of an electronic camcorder. Indeed, the enzyme acts within nanoseconds, so that real-time is somewhat longer to allow for the percept to travel from its origin to the integrating cerebral systems.

"Instant" is a physics concept, derived from the fastest possible event. Being the travel of a distance by light the fastest event, instant might be defined arbitrarily, using standard units, like Planck's length. I am attempting to offer some original ideas, without using complicated mathematics. For that reason, I prefer to consider the time interval taken by the simplest chemical reaction as the definition of instant, being in the range of femtoseconds (10-15 sec.). Thus, "instant" is one million times faster than "now."

Moving now to light's speed, it is contended that pushing a rod at one end can not transmit the signal to its other end at zero time, that is, really instantaneously. The reasoning: all rods are elastic, so that the push moves along them slower than light. Perhaps this is true in the Newtonian realm. But, how can be explained that cesium gas allows for photons to travel at increased rates? And how can it be explained that entangled half-photons communicate "instantly?"

The purpose of this commentary is to present the hypothesis that these processes at the quantum realm are "rod-like" in nature, the "rod" being partially or totally inelastic.

On the "Faster Than Light" (FTL) phenomenon, I posit that the first cesium gaseous atom pushed by the incoming photon transmits the specific signal along the partially inelastic gas, resulting in the last cesium atom emitting almost instantly a photon of basically the same properties. The incoming photon thus seems to be traveling faster than light.*

On the Instantaneous-Communication Entanglement: I've posited that photons have a wispy mass, made of "Physical Vibrations (PVs)."**    

Thus, it is just one step further to postulate that the two halves of a photon are always entangled by their PVs, and that they continue to be entangled when they are being separated into two. The distance they can reach is thus limited, but their intercommunication is instantaneous because the PVs act as absolutely inelastic rods.*** 

* Information about FTL cesium experiments can be seen at: Sept 2000 Scientific American "Unlimited Light" .

**http://www.journaloftheoretics.com/articles/2-3/jghitis-pub.htm 

*** Website on the entangled photon experiments: http://info.uibk.ac.at/c/c7/c704/qo/photon/_teleport/index.html (no longer valid link).


GRAVITY and INERTIA

Gravity is a pulling force, which may be analogized with the vacuum effect. But while suction acts mechanically and unilaterally upon the inertia of whatever is aspirated, gravity acts by means of fields of force of interacting bodies. For a vacuum to act freely, the space evacuated must be replaced equivalently. Gravity sets no conditions, because it is intrinsic to mass. The field it creates is not observable, being imaginatively derived from the observable magnetic field. It is as if the gravity field of separate bodies acted mutually and reciprocally upon another intrinsic quality of mass, which is denominated inertia.  

Inertia, if so, is then "natural antigravity." An object is made up of molecules whose individual inertias have, by several means, coalesced into a single body. Inertia is a force that prevents the lumping together of all mass by the force of gravity. Gravity and inertia are properties of mass in proportionally equal strength that are being manifested when interacting with other masses.

There is a basic difference between these two forces: gravity is believed to act by means of a field of force whose lines are presumable composed of attracting "gravitons," while I posit that inertia is expressed by a field of "antigravitons." However, this is not a repelling but a parrying force or field. It has been taken for granted that celestial bodies are not lumped together, without asking ourselves why. Inertia is the "antilumping" force. At the quantum realm, gluons are said to be the entities that maintain the gravitationally induced lumping that  makes protium, while mesons maintain the thermogravitationally induced lumping that forms heavier atoms. 

The antilumping principle works in biology with the red blood cells. They repel each other, through an electrostatic negative force called "zeta potential." Once it is neutralized by protamine that has been added to the test tube, the RBCs agglutinate (clump) until saline is added, which indicates that the protamine did not act through chemical bonding. This biological phenomenon shows coexistence in a body of externally directed (physically-chemically-effected) repulsion-attraction forces.

Momentum is the kinetic energy of mass in movement while inertia is a force/field present also in static bodies. A body in movement but not toward a gravitational attractor, acts as if its inertia is increased, thus becoming less affected by gravity. This means that heavier and faster moving objects are less subject to gravity's pull. The Moon has a significant gravitational pull on Earth and the obverse even more, yet the moon stays there because of its inertial field and velocity. Lesser-inertial orbiting celestial bodies should be closer to their "orbiter", unless they are still quite young since it is their formation by means of the gravitational lumping that accreted their component dust. Also, if they happen to be pieces of rock from other celestial bodies, as I posit happens to be the case of Pluto. In this latter case, the moving rock's inertia, which may be equated to its momentum is unaffected by gravity and prevents it from further gravitational "slavery" by the Sun.

Big Bang (B.B.) is a complex postulate explaining the Universe's creation from a fiery explosion of a primordial object the size of a pin's point or a grapefruit. The basic flaws of such postulate are the impossibility of accepting that heat and light could exist before matter was created, and that it glosses over why most of the hydrogen remained unaffected.

Big Expansion (B.E.) is the name I suggest for ideas expressed by myself and others that  postulates a cold and dark expansion of a Primal Singularity. It is my purpose to further delve on this postulate in as a concise manner as possible, being the subject so complex.

I am mostly moved by my personal negative reaction to certain concepts. The very idea of a "dark" energy unattached to mass is repellent. I have suggested on good basis, that dark matter is hydrogen whose electrons are "dormant" (1). I will now offer an explanation for the increasing expansion rate of the Universe, allowing for the irrelevancy of suggestions on vacuum energy, quintessence, dark energy and a cosmological (lambda) constant. Lately, opinions from expert theorists hint of kabalistic stuff, such as the "something from nothing" ("Yesh meayin" in Hebrew, "Creatio ex nihilum" in Latin, "Virtual particles fleetingly popping up," in English). Also, an anthropocentric ("anthropic") twist supposes that the universe is changing, perhaps not coincidentally, with the appearance of H. sapiens. Such idea revives the Sophist's saying, "Man is the measure of all things." Variables have also been proposed, which can adapt themselves or ought to be maneuvered, so that the universe can be explained the way it happens to be.

The explanation of the very existence of the Universe gave rise to different myths of creation by widely separated peoples' minds since the beginning of abstract thought. I have published some ideas on why it is not possible to know the true explanation (2). The following is my up-to-date view of cosmogony:

Instantly after the beginning, the Primal Singularity exploded silently, coldly and darkly. Pairs of Primal Particles (Physical Vibrations, PVs) scattered in all directions, opening space. Soon these particles coalesced into groups of concentric clouds of protium, which gave rise to stars, galaxies, and successively more complex clusters of hot and luminous bodies.

Most of the protium clouds remained intact between the galaxies.

All layers of such complex bodies obeyed the newly created laws of physics, according to their relative position in space. Those at the fringes were the fastest ones, impulsed by the jet-like energy of their component stars, accelerating as they became constantly less reined in by their neighbors at their sides and behind.

Such, in a nutshell, is what has happened since some 15 billion years ago up to the moment of this writing.

What next?

I have posited that all energy derives from the spin of the PVs, and that the gravitational force is the result of the opposite spins of electrons and positrons inside the quarks (3). I posit now that the spinning electrons effect the gravity field, while the spinning positrons effect the just posited inertial field. These fields are influenced by the localization of the bodies in relation to the periphery of the universe.

The not unreasonable proposal of spin as the source of all energy and as the creator of fields serves as a unifying bridge in Theoretics, and as explanatory of the spinís existence.

It was proposed a long time ago that the gravity law of inverse squares fails at a certain distance, and I accept this, on the basis of "critical points" of a physical property. There ought to be a constant value that correlates the inertia of an orbiting body, expressed as angular momentum with the distance from its attractors.

I have posited that the amount of mass present in the primal singularity that gave rise to the B.E. dictates the ultimate volume of the universe. It is not difficult to envision that nearing that limit, the frontier galaxies will mostly have become huge black holes, thus increasing their gravitational pull on the galaxies following behind, which will join them to successively augment the effect on the following ones. Irremisively, space will close down as the centripetal gravity returns the universe to the original state of the primal singularity. The universe, if it is a closed system, will always contain the same amount of mass and energy. 

As the last black hole is accreted, the density of the mass will reach the critical point when the centripetal pressure compresses it to its final state, the original primal singularity. Its volume can not be imagined, because space has ceased to exist at the very moment of such implosion and volume has thus becoming a meaningless concept. The singularity ceases to be made of just compacted matter, because matter is fractured into its original constituents, and the singularity becomes a conglomerate of Primal Particle pairs (Physical Vibrations, PVs). Without a lapse, again a singular explosion --not fiery but silent, cold and dark, i.e., an expansion-- will follow the implosion, space, and volume again acquiring meaning, and time starting a new circle. The absorbed crushing gravitational energy will now revert from implosive to explosive, scattering the primal particle pairs of the singularity in all directions.  These PVs subsequently accrete, by centripetal gravitational pressure, to initially become nonmaterial mass (nm) with its spin energy and then protium and some deuterium. Matter (M), made of material mass (m) and potential atomic energy (E) will thus be created anew, allowing gravitational pressure to form helium and derivative binding gluons. Entropy of the first kind will again announce its arrival as follows. In the fusional process that creates stars, part of the parental hydrogen mass (m) reverts to protomass (pm), i.e., PVs, while its associated potential atomic energy (E) becomes photonic energy (pE), which is actually electricity with its associated electromagnetic properties, giving rise to photons (3). Time, as we are capable of conceiving it now, restarts at that moment, as a dimension of energy.

The electrons of most of the formed hydrogen will remain dormant waiting the signal to activate and become new star fuel, thus constituting "dark" matter that is detectable only by its gravitational virtues. The Universe becomes a new a well-defined system, in which the electromagnetic radiations, particularly microwaves, play the role of messengers and supervisors surveying all the universe's ambits, waking as needed dormant hydrogen electrons and transporting and delivering energy and matter to the electrons of all recipient atoms.

It is therefore true that matter and energy are not destroyed, only transformed back and forth. 

Just some thoughts?o:p>

Jacob Ghitis  <ghitis@isdn.net.il>

 

References:

1.    http://www.journaloftheoretics.com/comments/2-4/2-4.htm 

2a.  http://www.geocities.com/ghitis.geo/TIME-SPACE.html

2b.  http://www.geocities.com/ghitis.geo/MATTER.html

2c.  http://www.geocities.com/ghitis.geo/UMBILICUS1.html

2d.  http://www.geocities.com/ghitis.geo/UMBILICUS3.html

2e.  http://www.geocities.com/ghitis.geo/UMBILICUS4.html

3.    http://www.journaloftheoretics.com/articles/2-3/jghitis-pub.htm

 

Journal Home Page

?Journal of Theoretics, Inc. 2001  (Note: all submissions become the property of the Journal)

Repeatedly, go through the Rolex rather than hublot replica sale Swatch consideration and even the correct way these kinds of "Swiss Made" running watches are purchased to help you highly the various models of users designed for varies greatly arguments. As a result, even while smartwatches can be gaining interest at unclaimed arms and the having on alot more important running watches solely to point the time period, I simply you should not find out any specific realistic signs to help you declare that the luxurious sit back rolex replica sale and watch trade is without a doubt considerably troubled with that deal in smartwatches. Heading back to help you MAKE Heuer repeatedly (they are really really certainly specific in recent times), some people made give off that MAKE Heuer Interconnected smartwatch, though not as an easy way to help you rise above revenues replica watches sale forfeited to help you several other smartwatches, but alternatively as an easy way to help you enlarge proper unique advertise they can wasn't prior to this hired through.