for the Existence of 5 Real Spatial Dimensions in Quantum Vacuum
- Scale of Quantum Temperatures Below
Zero Kelvin -
Author: Carlos Calvet, Ph.D.
Francisco Corbera no. 15,
Canet de Mar (B), Spain
Abstract: Conventional forces like
gravitation and electromagnetism vary with the square of the distance. This is
because the corresponding force is scattered into 3 dimensions due to the
distribution of virtual gravitons or photons of the corresponding field in a
3D-space. In an analogous way, the
Casimir force, that varies with the 4th power of the distance, ought to arise
from bosons distributed in a hyperspace with 5 real physical dimensions. This
leads to the prediction of a whole new world of “quantum temperatures” below
zero Kelvin, and to a model that surprisingly agrees with cosmology and recent
findings of the zero-point-field (ZPF). “Virtual” field particles (e.g. bosons
of the ZPF) are probably nothing else than hyperspace particles that cross our
3-D universe from time to time, thus seeming “virtual” to us. This paper details how our universe can be
considered as a 3-D space “floating” on an immense 5-D space - the hyperspace -
in analogy to a sheet of ice floating in a deep sea.
Hyperspace, Energy scale, Black Hole, Quantum Waves, ZPR/ZPE
possibility of “lack of air” was neglected until Otto von Guericke demonstrated
1650 the power of vacuum, using two large hemispheres that even 8 horses could
not detach from each other. 1660, Robert Boyle predicted that sound will not
travel in a vacuum, although 1798, Humphry Davy observed that heat is
transmitted through it. 1934, Paul Dirac described the polarization of vacuum
and cofounded QED, making 1950 the 1st suggestion of string theory.
In addition, sixty years
ago, the pioneers of quantum theory (Wyle, Schroedinger, Clifford, and
Einstein) believed that particles had a wavy structure, instead of being point
particles. Quantum waves, as suggested by Cramer (1986), are real and not
merely a probability distribution, thus supporting the original concept of
Clifford (1956) that all matter is simply "undulations in the fabric of
and Feynman (1945) first predicted that the electron was made of spherical
inward and outward electromagnetic waves. Using a quantum wave (QW) equation
and spherical quantum waves, Wolff (1995) found and described a wave that
successfully predicted the properties of matter. There is great evidence that
matter is the result of spherical quantum waves that exist even at 0ºK. This
model lead as early as 1922 to the prediction of the positron (Anderson), since
it predicted a particle with a spin opposite to that of the electron. The
positron was discovered by Anderson in 1931, making the theory of QW absolutely
the other hand, H. G. B. Casimir of Philips Laboratories in the Netherlands
discovered the so called “Casimir Effect,” now known as an attractive force
between close metal plates. The Casimir force was measured by S. K. Lamoreaux
at the University of Washington, and defined as a “force derived from partial
shielding of the interior region of the plates, arising from the background
zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field”. Milonni and his
colleagues from Los Alamos showed that this shielding effect pushes the plates
together due to the unbalanced zero-point radiation (ZPR) of quantum vacuum.
The vacuum energy is hereby converted into kinetic energy.
unifying the principle of QW, the laws of gravitational and EM attraction, and
the Casmir force, this author found an obvious evidence for the existence of a
real hyperspace with 5 spatial dimensions (see also 8) in the
quantum vacuum, that can be accessed through small artificial black holes or
hyperdense matter. Furthermore, there seems to exist a whole world of yet
unknown quantum temperatures even far below 0ºK.
1. Number of Dimensions of Fields
Quantum vacuum research
revealed that the so called zero-point-radiation ZPR or ZPE (an energy that
exists even at 0ºK) is composed mainly of virtual electromagnetic waves and
virtual particle pairs that cannot be measured directly (see for ex. 7,
9). But this is contradictory to the well known findings of Lord
Kelvin, who demonstrated 1848 that all molecular activity (and therefore all EM
release) freezes at this temperature. Furthermore, if we watch the formula of
the Casimir force and compare it to those of the gravitational and
electromagnetic (EM) forces, we realize that, while gravitational, electric and
magnetic forces vary with the square of the distance [formulae 1, 2, 3], the Casimir force
varies with the fourth power of the distance :
Where: F/B = above mentioned forces; G/C/m0/h/p = constants; m/q = mass/charge; d/r =
distance/ratio; q = angle to magnetic
vector v ([1, 2, 3] from 10;  from 7)
A force that varies with the
square of the distance means that the force will increase with the square of
the distance if we reduce the distance, and it will decrease with the square of
the distance if we increase the distance. As a result, this author concluded
that a force that varies with the square of the distance can be considered as a
conventional 1-dimensional force vector (x-axis) that is scattered into 2
additional dimensions (y, z) due to the 3-dimensional nature of space. The
square power of the distance indicates the number of additional dimensions we
must add to a 1-dimensional force vector in order to get the number of
dimensions of the whole field of force (here, 3):
 N = a + n
Where: N = number of dimensions of the
whole field of force
= number of dimensions of the force vector (usually 1)
= power, the force varies with the distance (in this case, 2)
the above case: N = a + n =>
N = 1 + 2 = 3. This means, a 1-dimensional force vector varies with the
square of the distance in a 3-dimensional space.
In an analogous way, a force
that varies with the fourth power of the distance (Casimir force) can be
considered as a 1-dimensional force vector that is scattered in a 5-dimensional
space (N = a + n => N = 1 + 4 = 5). Therefore, it is evident
that the field that originates the Casimir force is a 5-dimensional field, i.e.
that it is in fact a hyperspace field that produces the corresponding effects
in our 3-D universe.
2. Quantum Temperatures
when Lord Kelvin established the absolute temperature scale, he did not know
about quanta. The idea that there is no temperature possible below 0ºK has
prevailed for more than 1 ½ centuries, but now this idea seems to be
insufficient with regard to quantum vacuum exploration (see for ex. 9):
According to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, there ought to be a whole
world of virtual photons, particles and antiparticles even at zero Kelvin. In
consequence, zero Kelvin cannot represent zero energy. The energy that exists
at zero Kelvin must correspond furthermore to a certain energy level and this
energy level must necessarily begin far below zero Kelvin. In fact: In
agreement to equation , the
Casimir force that originates from the ZPF is a 5-dimensional force, and
according to equation , its
strength varies with the distance. Therefore, the field density will be higher
between plates that are close together, and weaker between plates that are more
distant. In consequence, the energy density of the ZPF varies locally, so that
there are regions with more energy than others. In addition, zero-point
fluctuations arise from virtual photons of a potential variety of wavelengths (6),
thus supporting the idea that there is a whole energy range below zero K,
analogous to the energy range of real photons above absolute zero (radio waves
through gamma rays).
consequence, the author defines the concept of “quantum temperatures” as the
measurable amount of energy contained below zero Kelvin. This energy would
mainly be due to the following sources of kinetic or pure energy:
- quantum spin / quantum rotation
waves (wavy nature of particles, see also: 1, 4)
or Casimir energy (see also : 9),
Omitting willingly any other external source of energy as the movement
of the earth, the solar system, the galaxy and the whole universe, which is of
course very difficult to evaluate and is usually omitted.
to 11, the maximum energy density in the sense of oscillating
particles that quantum vacuum can contain is 10116 ergs cm-3
s-1 = 10115 J m-3 s-1. This energy
level corresponds to any wave or particle energy “that space-time can support”.
In consequence, there is a whole world of quantum temperatures, beginning with
0ºK or 10115 J m-3 s-1 and ending at 0 J m-3
1. Above 10115 J (>0ºK), we have
a hot universe with Kelvin radiation (EMR).
At 10115 J (0ºK), we have a wavy universe
with quantum waves and ZPE, but no more Kelvin radiation (EMR=0).
Below 10115 J (<0ºK), we have a universe
that becomes less and less wavy and has a respective lower ZPE.
At 0 J, we reach a completely flat universe with no
quantum waves nor ZPE at all.
The flat universe
corresponded to the concept of the “Big Chill,” a possible final state of the
universe after burning out all the energy available, e.g. smoothing any
above-depicted scenario allows us to understand the nature of the ZPE, which is
still uncertain since it is an energy that is composed of “virtual photons that
cannot be measured directly”. According to the above dimensional model (see
Ch.1 in Results), ZPE would be composed of virtual photons that have 2 more
degrees of freedom than ordinary photons (i.e., light, heat), e.g. that exist
in a real 5-dimensional hyperspace.
With this model in mind, it
is easy to understand why we cannot detect directly virtual photons of the ZPE;
they are not inside the same space as ourselves or our detectors, and we can
detect them only for fractions of seconds when crossing our 3-dimensional space
before disappearing again in hyperspace. Therefore, they seem “virtual” to us
Although ZPR/ZPE has been
called also ZPF (ZP-field), it is not really a field of force as the
gravitational or EM field. This can be understood from the definition of the
Casimir force: “a force derived from partial shielding of the … background
zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field” (6).
This means, the Casimir force is not the result of a traditional field
of force that acts by mediation of carrier particles (bosons) interchanged from
one material particle to another, thus resulting in an attraction or repulsion,
but that of photon waves, producing a radiation pressure that can be measured
(i.e. by Casimir plates). In this sense, Casimir energy or ZPE resembles more
EM radiation than an EM field, although it is as “virtual” as a field of force.
This fact has already been explained in part in Calvet12 and Calvet13
since a field of force is a medium, which we are submerged in, thus being not
able to “see” or detect directly its components (bosons). The case of the ZPE
is different, since “virtual” means here, “particles that are coming and going
from our universe to hyperspace and vice-versa”. In consequence, there are at
least 2 different kinds of virtual particles, e.g. those from hyperspace and
those of 3-D fields of force (fields of force are 3-D because they vary with
the square of the distance - see also [1,2,3]).
surprising conclusion of the hyperspace model is that gravitation and EM
attraction could be explained simply as the result of a “suction” force from
hyperspace. In fact: Hyperspace is to a 3-D space as the atmosphere is to a
balloon or the void to air. The air of the balloon tries to escape to the
atmosphere through any hole the balloon has, while the air tries to fill up any
empty space (vacuum). In an analogous way, gravitation and EM can be seen as
the tendency of non-charged/charged matter to dissipate in hyperspace through
small windows between our 3-D universe and hyperspace. These windows are opened
by the energy we know as quantum spin. As seen already in the Background Field (BF)
theory (Calvet12 and Calvet13), gravitation and EM are
probably forces produced by the same field and EM is simply due to more
energetic interactions with the BF. Therefore, hyperspace will produce a
suction force on elementary particles, analogous to their mass (gravitation) or
polarity (EM), while the BF is a field that links our world to hyperspace. EM
repulsion could be explained in an analogous way as a phenomenon that forces
the BF out of hyperspace, i.e. between two equal charges or poles.
1. Black Holes
to the above hyperspace model, a Black Hole (BH) would be a relatively large
window to hyperspace, e.g. the mass (particle density) of the corresponding
body would be so great, that it could no longer be supported by the fabric of
space-time, thus “falling” into hyperspace. The strong gravitational attraction
of BHs can be now easily understood as a strong hyperspace suction effect on
particles in our 3-D world. The infinitely dense and infinitely small body that
is attributed usually to BHs, can be understood as a particle that has exceeded
certain limit and that has been absorbed by hyperspace. This limit would be
analogous to the Chandrasekhar limit, e.g. the mass limit, beyond which an
exploding star becomes a BH. The concepts “infinitely dense and infinitely
small” are concepts relative to our 3-D universe. In hyperspace, a BH is
probably nothing else than a conventional body with a certain density and size,
since the ability of hyperspace to support massive bodies is probably much
higher than that of 3-D space because of the 2 additional degrees of freedom
The hyperspace model is a
generalization and would work with any field proposed in literature
(Higgs-field, BF, ZPF, etc.). It has an intrinsic beauty since it explains even
extraordinarily strange relativistic phenomena like BHs in plane and almost
Newtonian words. Everybody understands the meaning of suction, as a force
produced by the tendency of matter to dissipate in hyperspace whenever
possible, since any increase of the size of a space will produce a force that
forces matter literally to fill up this new empty space.
Small BHs could be produced
artificially by using a conventional hydrogen bomb and fusion material at 0ºK
instead of higher temperatures. At 0ºK, there would be no radiation leaving the
atoms when the bomb compressed the material, thus allowing a much more
efficient compression than at higher temperatures. If we compressed in this way
hydrogen at 0ºK, apart from different fusion materials, we would also get some
hyperdense material in form of small BHs or neutron matter. Hydrogen is the
ideal candidate for such compression since at 0ºK, it would build an absolutely
dense proton body once we had demagnetized and deelectrified atoms (e.g.
elimination of any orbiting or free electron).
we had produced and stabilized such matter by placing it i.e. in the outer
space, we could use it to access the hyperspace. The more matter we managed to
compress, the more the resulting BH would “fall” into hyperspace. We could also
condense heavy atoms like gold atoms at 0ºK reaching an even much more dense
body (this would require higher compression energy and a more efficient cooling
of the device).
2. Hyperspace Model of the Universe
summary, we can imagine our world as a 3 dimensional space with 3-D objects
“floating” in a 5-dimensional sea, the hyperspace.
In drawing 1 (to the left), space
and hyperspace are shown as two different worlds, each dominated by different
kinds of energy, e.g. 3-D Kelvin radiation in our universe, and 5-D quantum
waves and ZPE in hyperspace. Both worlds are linked by small windows
(fermions), but also by larger windows that can be created or exist here and
there (Black Holes, Neutron Stars, etc.). The stability of our world depends on
the size of these windows. If we created a window, so huge that the whole 3-D
universe could pass through it, our universe would be destroyed and would be
absorbed completely by the much larger hyperspace. Fortunately, in our
universe, there are not many of such large windows. In fact, the major part of
hyperspace windows is as small as elementary particles. Only here and there are
larger windows like BHs or other phenomena that have not even been described or
thought about in scientific literature.
drawing 1, we see an upper 3-D world with real particles of heat and light.
Forces vary in this world with the square of the distance.
our universe, there is a 5-D world (hyperspace) with particles that are
“virtual” to us, since they cross our universe only from time to time. In this
world, there are only quantum waves and ZP-particles. Hyperspace is interfaced
to our universe through small windows (fermions) and larger “tunnels” (BHs,
Neutron Stars, etc.).
hyperspace, there is an absolutely flat universe that represents the, so
called, “Big Chill,” since at this mysterious stage, there remains no energy of
any kind at all.
above mentioned hyperspace model is not an arbitrary model. It is even able to explain one of the most
crucial questions of physics and cosmology is: “Why is our universe
3-dimensional?”. This model shows that our conventional 3-D space is only part
of a greater world. Our space seems 3-D to us, simply because the smallest
space that can support elementary particles is a 3-D space. But this does not
mean that there are no further dimensions - all the contrary. In fact, if we
imagine a completely empty space with no particle at all, how many dimensions
would this space have? The answer is of course: “infinite”. Infinite, because a
space without any particle inside has evidently no “information” about how many
dimensions particles need. Therefore, in order to grant in any case a stable
universe, space must have the greatest amount of degrees of freedom (dimensions)
possible. And this number is certainly “infinite”. Any other universe would be
unable to exist since it would be non-compatible with itself.
consequence, our universe is 3-dimensional, simply because 3 is the smallest
number of dimensions a particle needs to exist. This agrees with the above
mentioned hypothesis that particles are nothing else than waves in the fabric
of space since any wave has at least 3 degrees of freedom (x, y, z). May be,
hyperspace arose from the movement of elementary particles. In a space with a
potentially infinite number of dimensions, the universe (the space, where
particles are confined) is able to adopt any number of dimensions according to
the evolution of the universe itself. It is therefore not negligible to suppose
that there can exist phenomena in the universe that needed more than 5 degrees
of freedom (i.e. “strings” that are supposed to exist in 11 dimensions).
order to prove if the above presented model is consistent with cosmology, lets
try the following experiment of thought:
a particle that is released at the upper side of the thermal scale. By “falling
down” the scale, the particle passes from a highly energetic state (Big Bang)
through the Kelvin universe. The lower the energetic state of the particle, the
less radiation energy it releases. In consequence, the particle cools down,
emitting X-rays at 2x106ºK, UV-radiation at 105ºK and
finally IR radiation at room temperature. As the particle continues to fall
down the thermal scale, it approaches 0ºK, emitting less and less photons each
time. At 0ºK, the emission of photons stops completely and the particle “falls”
into the hyperspace by adopting the same thermal state as the ZPR. Once in
hyperspace, the energy of the particle is of 10115 J m-3
s-1. At this stage, the particle becomes a virtual ZPF-particle. As
the particle falls more and more down the thermal scale of quantum
temperatures, its quantum wave structure weakens continuously. At reaching the
level of 0 Joules, the quantum wave structure of the particle disappears and
the universe becomes completely flat as if the particle had never existed.
mentioned process of a particle “falling down” the Kelvin and quantum thermal
scales, surprisingly agrees with the cosmological models of the Big Bang and
the Big Chill. According to this hyperspace model, the Big Bang that originated
the universe, produced a space with a potentially infinite number of degrees of
freedom (similar to embryonic cells that have the ability to become any kind of
cell of the body since they are not yet specialized). The wavy nature of
elementary particles restricted the number of spatial dimensions to 3, although
this basic number was subsequently increased in order to allow elementary
particles to move and rotate at relativistic velocities. We can thus imagine
the universe as a stormy sea of quantum waves and ZPE. The final state of such
a universe (the “great calm” after the storm) is a completely flat universe
with no quantum waves and no particles at all. In cosmology, this state is
called the “Big Chill” and agrees surprisingly with this hyperspace model.
After describing the
dimensional nature of the universe, our efforts must now be directed to control
and manipulate hyperspace. If we manage to create artificial windows that link
our universe to hyperspace, we will be able to travel light years in 3
dimensions, while moving only millimeters inside hyperspace. The possibilities
for interstellar navigation are enormous. A window could be opened, compressing
demagnetized and de-electrified matter at 0ºK by means of a hydrogen bomb (an
atomic bomb that compresses matter). The resulting hyperdense
matter could be stabilized and used to send a probe through the hyperspace, but
also to extract radiation (cheap energy) or even to communicate with remote
civilizations. I am confident that dimensional technology will be in
approximately 50 years as usual as quantum devices in the next decades.
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