Diatomic Hypothesis and Calculation of Condensation
Force**
**
Author: Zeljko Prebeg
Lermanova
12a, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
zeljko.prebeg@zg.tel.hr
**
**
**Abstract: **The concept of a molecular pair as the base of
organization for matter successfully describes the polymerization phenomena. For
this reason, a diatomic hypothesis is hereto postulated. According to the diatomic hypothesis, matter is organized in
pairs. The degrees of freedom
for particle movement within the solid, liquid, and gas phase are examined.
The application of the energy conservation law for a two-particle
system in a liquid-gas phase transition shows that the condensation force
exists. This force is universal and dependent upon the volume of
interaction.
**
**
**Keywords: **diatomic hypothesis, condensation force, phase
transition.
# Introduction
It has
been shown that molecular pair is the base for the organization of ethylene
under high pressure.^{1} This concept for the organization of the matter
successfully describes the polymerization phenomena
(initiation, chain growth, termination, heat of polymerization, stability of
radicals, etc.). In this paper
the concept of the molecular pair will be further discussed.
Atomic
hypothesis exists. According to
atomic hypothesis, matter has atomic organization. The main triumph of this
hypothesis is the kinetic theory of gases, but it is only
valid for a system of non-interactive particles. Characteristic of particle interaction is intermolecular
force. This force causes
attraction at long, and repulsion at short intermolecular distances. The intensity of that intermolecular force depends of
intermolecular distance and nature of the particles. In this paper the intermolecular force will be examined on
the basis of the diatomic hypothesis. The condensation force will be calculated. **
**
**
**
## Diatomic
Hypothesis
Basic
difference between solid, liquid, and gas phase is the degrees of freedom
for translation particle movement. Particles
in the solid phase do not have the degrees of freedom for translation
movement. Each direction of
motion is occupied by intermolecular force (Figure 1a).
Particles
in liquid phase show two-dimensional movement (Figure 1b), but they are
still under the influence of intermolecular force. Finally, particles
in gas phase show movement in all directions of space (Figure 1c).
According to the kinetic theory of gases, a particle in motion along one
coordinate of space has an energy of kT/2. In three-dimension space,
the total kinetic energy of free particle is 3kT/2. Particles in the
liquid phase have two dimensions free for movement. Its kinetic energy
is kT. Particles in the solid phase do not have degrees of
freedom for movement, its kinetic energy is zero. Particles in solid
phase have only potential energy. During the solid-liquid phase
transformation, heat is absorbed. While potential energy of particles
in liquid and solid is the same, the heat of phase transformation is spent
on particle movement. According to this DE_{(SàL) }= kT_{(S}_{àL)}_{.}
Figure 2
shows the heat of fusion as a function of the melting temperature of
elements of the periodic system.^{2} The slope of a straight
line (1,7E-23 J/K) is a good approximation of the Boltzman's constant.
Can we
apply this analysis on the liquid-gas phase transformation? For a
better understanding of the liquid-gas phase transformation we shall now
postulate diatomic hypothesis, "Matter is organized in pairs."
__
__
Figure 3
shows the energy spent for overcoming the attraction force and the
increasing of particle movement. During the liquid-gas phase
transition, the particle changes two-dimensional movement
to three-dimensional movement,
together with expansion into three dimensions of space:
(1)
where
DE_{L}_{®G}
(J) is the heat of vaporization
F (N) is
the intermolecular force
x_{G}
(m) is the intermolecular distance at gas phase
x_{L}
(m) is the intermolecular distance at liquid phase_{ }
k =
1.38E-23 JK^{-1}
T_{ L}_{®G}
(K) boiling temperature
Intermolecular
distance at gas phase is much higher then intermolecular distance in liquid
phase. (x_{G}>>x_{L}) In that case,
(2)
Intermolecular
distance forms sphere of interaction V
(3)
This
implicates,
(4)
According to equation for
ideal gases,
(5)
This
implicates,
(6)
where P_{atm} =
101325 Pa
Finally,
intermolecular force can be calculated by equation,
(7)
For calculation of intermolecular force (7) and
intermolecular distance (6), data (heat of vaporization and boiling
temperature) for elements of the periodic system are used.^{2}
Figure 4 shows intermolecular force as a function of intermolecular
distance.
It is
evident that a condensation force exists within matter. This force is
independent from the nature of matter. It depends upon the volume of
interaction (V~x^{3}). Existence of the
condensation force is supports the diatomic hypothesis. It can be
therefore concluded that matter is organized in pairs under the influence of
a condensation force.
**Literature****:**
1.
Zeljko Prebeg, **Journal of
Theoretics**, Vol.2,No.1(2000)
2. David Hsu, Chemicool Periodic Table, http://www.chemicool.com/
(inactive 8/2001).
**Acknowledgement:** I wish to thank my parents
Joseph and Victoria.
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