Journal of Theoretics



Author: Mitic Goran

Somborska 23, 18000 Nish, Serbia, Russia


Abstract:  This paper presents a newly developed feature of mass that with the change of temperature, it is changed not only in quantity but also in the quality. It is proposed and shown herein that an attractive mass will decrease as the temperature increases, until it gets the quality of repulsion after going through the massless state. The change of mass from an attracting mass into a repulsing one represents the fundamental novelty in the mass interactions, and takes them into the natural harmony with all other known interactions in the nature.  So, all known interactions in the nature are the attracting-repulsive ones, without exceptions. By introducing such antigravitation into the theory of interactions, the clear and simple way toward the Unified Theory of Fields is opened.

Keywords:  mass, temperature, relativity, gravitation, attraction, repulsion, antigravity.



Relativity of the body mass, in relation to its temperature, is more amazing than the relativity of the body mass in relation to its velocity, which is given by Einstein in his theory of Special Relativity (SR). According to Einstein's SR, the body mass is increasing from the starting value and aims at the infinity as the speed of a body approaches that of light (c).

The temperature relativity of mass is such that the mass can change in the quantity, increase or decrease in relation to the starting value of the mass. And it can change in quality, in that its attracting aspect can become a repulsive one, or vice versa, going through a “massless state?or “the state of zero-mass.?span style="mso-spacerun: yes">  Mass can increase with decreasing temperature, and it can decrease with increasing temperature.

Mass interaction is an attracting one (a gravitational one) only when both masses are attracting, and antigravitational when at least one of them is repulsive or has a greater repulsive mass than the other has attracting. Naturally, the mass interaction between two repulsive masses will be repulsive, i.e. the antigravitational one. The intensity of mass interactions will naturally depend on the quantity of attraction and repulsion of the mass and distance between them, in the way that Newton defined it. Consequently, if we mathematically consider the attracting mass as being the positive one, and the repulsive mass as being the negative one, then we can think of these masses (their attracting/repulsing nature) as simple vector addition.  Mathematically, the temperature relativity of the mass for the certain body should be expressed as it follows:

m(T) = (Tmo -- T)m(Dm/DT),

where m(T) is the mass of the given body at the determined absolute temperature, Tmo is the body temperature at which the body mass equals zero, T is the absolute temperature, and m(Dm/DT) is the function that shows the change of the body mass with the temperature change.  Additionally it depends both on the kinds of atoms, i.e. molecules, and on the atomic, i.e. molecular, body structure.

Therefore, three separate situations can be clearly identified:

(1)    T<Tmo, i.e. the body mass is attractive,

(2)    T=Tmo, i.e. the body is massless, and

(3)    T>Tmo, i.e. the body mass is repulsive.

If the interaction between: T, m(T), G, and R is shown graphically, where G is the gravitational force created by the body and R is the repulsive force created by the body as well, then:







m >> 0

G >> 0

R = 0


m > 0

G > 0

R = 0


m = 0

G = 0

R = 0


m < 0

G = 0

R > 0


m << 0

G = 0

R >> 0


The graphic presentation of the mass dependence on T for a separate atom or molecule for diferent m would look like the following:  


The graphic presentation of the body mass dependence on T for the given body, with the presentation of the states of aggregation changes, would look like the following: 


It is obvious that the varying of body mass with temperature, until the body is in solid and liquid state of aggregation, is very small, and that huge and fundamental changes are created only when the body is in the vapour state of aggregation.

This concept of mass interactions is in natural harmony with all other familiar interactions in the nature, and it can be attracting and repulsive too, and this fact is of fundamental importance for physics.

This notion and notion that mass interactions and electromagnetic interactions are, naturally and fundamentally, connected by temperature relativity.  Heat also has an electromagnetic quality which gives us another building block to a Unified Field theory.  But if we want that some statement be accepted as a universal law of nature, its universal importance has to be previously confirmed and if there is such a concept of mass temperature relativity, then it must be noticed in the micro- and macro-universe.


Evidence for Mass Temperature Relativity

On a Micro Level:

Let consider what happens with the Sun’s neutrinos. Neutrinos develop inside the Sun at enormous temperatures and have a great repulsive mass.  Since they are in the Sun’s huge gravitational field, they are influenced by a large antigravitational force that removes and accelerates them. The repulsive mass of neutrinos has a hidden feature in that they almost do not react with matter. But as they go away from the Sun, they cool down slowly, and their repulsive mass decreases. At the Earth's distance from the Sun, their mass repulsion has decreased by so much that they start to react with matter and we can catch them. But an interesting question is why do we catch much easier more neutrinos coming from above, through from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface rather than neutrinos coming from below, through the planet to the surface?  It is hypothesized here that the neutrinos coming through the Earth are additionally warmed up and therefore have an increase in their repulsive mass, and also thereby having a reduced probability of interacting with matter.  In order to easily notice neutrinos, there is therefore a need to cool them down additionally before coming to a detector, which would then decrease the repulsive mass and even transform it into an attracting mass.

Now, let us consider the experiments of atoms cooling down that were done by Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Steven Chu, and William D. Phillips, winners of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1997.  Leading with the logic that the concepts of “cooling down?and “slowing down?are in fact the same, they cooled atoms using by using a laser to slow them down but they ran into an unexpected problem.  At very low temperatures, when atoms, in all sense seem stop moving, they would “fall like ripe apples.?span style="mso-spacerun: yes">  As the temperature became lower, their attracting mass became greater, thus the “falling like ripe apples.?o:p>

If the logic, the cooling down does equal to slowing down, it is logical to expand this to warming up as being equal to speeding up.  We can then say that the speeding up of particles in accelerators is intimately associated with their warming up.  This warming up causes a decreasing in their attracting mass.  Then after going through a massless state, particles while at great speeds (i.e. very high temperatures) become more repulsive.  During a further speeding up of particles, their repulsive mass will continue to increase. This increasing of a particle’s mass during a speeding up was noticed a long time ago, but it was not clear that the repulsive mass of particles increased, and that the decreasing and disappearance of attracting mass happened before that.  The secret of a speeding particle’s ability to penetrate matter is in its repulsive mass, similarly to that of neutrinos.

The reason for the lack of success in the control of fusion in Tocamack was due to the increase in the repulsive mass of electrons and ions that occurred with the increasing temperature of the plasma.  This is why there was the sudden decomposition of the plasma's ring despite the very strong electromagnetic fields that tried to sustain it.  Without taking into account mass temperature relativity, Tocamack should have had adequate magnetic field strength to contain the plasma ring at fusion temperatures.  Obviously temperature relativity was a significant factor and not taking it into account caused Tocamack to fail.

Thermal ionization of atoms and molecules is only a demonstration of changing an electron’s mass from one of attraction to one of repulsion. The same situation is true for the thermoemission of electrons during the warming up phase of cathode tube.


On a Macro Level:

Stars, supernovas, etc. are the greatest sources of gravitational field energy, mainly because a large portion of the attractive mass of the universe is located within them.  Keeping this in mind, they are also the best indicators of antigravitation because they are, at the same time, makers of the repulsive mass.  In order to understand what happens within stars, it is enough to examine what happens with the nearest star to us, the Sun.

Let us consider the temperature of photosphere, which is about 5800?/span>K.  As we go from the photosphere into hromosphere, the temperature increases very fast, rising to ten thousand degrees. The hromosphere is much more dynamic than the photosphere with its intensive turbulent movements.  Speckles are the vertical fibers components of the hromosphere which have a short duration of existence from 20 sec to half hour, and they are of varying heights which on average are about 3000 km.  The corona is consists of a mixed system of rays and curves with a fiber structure. Temperature in the rarefied gas of the corona increases to millions of degrees and the spectrum consists of the continuity (continuum) and emission lines of highly ionized elements. The corona is continuously spreading out into the cosmic expanse, and in that way it makes a sun (solar) wind, which at the Earth distance from the Sun has the speed of approximately 400 km/h. Why is that so? Why does the temperature drastically increase the farther away from the photosphere toward the corona, instead to decrease?  The answer is because the temperature relativity of the mass and antigravitation.

The Sun ejects the red-hot matter from the inside to the photosphere where it cools down by evaporating and again sinking backwards.  This evaporated matter, because of its high temperature, has a very repulsive mass within the Sun’s strong gravitational field.  This simply means that the enormous antigravitational force will start to influence it, giving an enormous acceleration to that matter. That antigravitational acceleration of gas matter is the cause of the quickly increasing temperature of the hromosphere to some ten thousands of degrees.

The fiber structure of the hromosphere and corona is the direct result of the photosphere’s structure.  The photosphere is of a granular structure where some of the granules are warmer while others are colder. Evaporations are much more intensive from the warmer granules, and the antigravitation effect converts them into the beams that remind us of fibers.  In these gas beams, the strong antigravitational accelerations, many interacting collisions appear, and they provoke the sudden increase of temperature in the hromosphere and corona, as well as the forming of heavy metals that are highly ionized due to the conditions where they developed.

By spreading and getting away from the Sun, the overheated and speeding up matter of the corona cools and slows down due to the decreasing of the antigravitational force and the mass repulsivity, transforming into the so-called Sun wind. The ionization of the Sun wind elements also decreases.  After all mentioned above, we have to make expand our understanding of the stars.

Stars use their fuel very economically in the processes that are occurring inside.  The temperature within the stars inside is surely higher than at the photosphere, but not drastically so, because the processes of making energy are slow.  The stars are made up of a dense red-hot plasma that is mainly slow and with the weak oscillations of the intensity, boils. When the star boiling is not slow and uniform, we notice the hasty evaporation of its material.  Due to the enormous antigravitation, its material gets out into the surrounding space, and the star after some time slows down again.  A similar situation is with the pulsars.  In any case, the enormous energy, emitted by the stars into the surrounding space, comes from the great potential energy within their gravitational field.

Since the stars are efficient creators of energy as well as heavy metals via the utilization of their gravitational field and they use their fuel very economically, it is clear that the process of their evolution is very slow.  This means that the universe may be much older than we think it is.  Now, we can say something about the cosmos.

Recent research has come to the discovery that the universe is not only expanding but it is spreading at a faster and faster pace.  How can it be explained the universe’s rate of expansion is increasing rather than slowing down?   As numerous stars within galaxies, and galaxies emit their winds, the solar particles are composed of particles with repulsive mass; it simply means that the concentration of repulsive mass within the intergalactic space is constantly increasing.  That constant increasing of repulsive mass within the intergalactic space provokes the faster rate of expansion of the entire cosmos.  



An increasing repulsive mass within the universe could mean that the universe is in a process of warming up, as evident by its increasing rate of expansion.  The destiny of universe completely depends on the nature of star evolution.  At this moment, the universe is spreading faster and faster, and it will last until the stars “work hurriedly.?span style="mso-spacerun: yes">  When the stars begin to go out, there will be a decrease in the universe’s rate of expansion associated with a cooling down which will decrease the value of the repulsive mass and increase the value of the attracting mass. 

In the essence of all, the top-level game of nature to change the mass in both quantity and quality, depending on the temperature, can be found as discussed here.  In order to comprehend what is really going on with the matter in terms of temperature relativity, more time, more experiments, and much more logic will be needed.  Such an understanding will change the state of current physics as we pace bravely forward toward the complete truth.



1. Richard C. Tolman, "Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology", at the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1969

2. Steven Weinberg, "The First Three Minutes" Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977

3. V.I. Grigorev, G.Y. Myakishev, "Forces in the Nature", Nauka, Moscow, 1988 (in Russian)

4. L.D. Landau, J.B. Rumer, "What is the Theory of Relativity?" Soviet Russia, Moscow, 1963 (in Russian)

5. Joe Schwartz, Michael McGuinness, "Einstein for Beginners", Pantheon Books, New York, 1979





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