The graphic presentation of the mass dependence on T for a separate atom
or molecule for diferent m
would look like the following:
The graphic presentation of the body mass dependence on T for the given body, with the presentation of the states of aggregation changes, would look like the following:
It is obvious that the varying of body mass with
temperature, until the body is in solid and liquid state of aggregation, is
very small, and that huge and fundamental changes are created only when the
body is in the vapour state of aggregation.
This concept of mass interactions is in natural harmony with all
other familiar interactions in the nature, and it can be attracting and
repulsive too, and this fact is of fundamental importance for physics.
notion and notion that mass interactions and electromagnetic interactions
are, naturally and fundamentally, connected by temperature relativity.
Heat also has an electromagnetic quality which gives us another
building block to a Unified Field theory.
But if we want that some statement be accepted as a universal law of
nature, its universal importance has to be previously confirmed and if there
is such a concept of mass temperature relativity, then it must be noticed in
the micro- and macro-universe.
Evidence for Mass Temperature Relativity
On a Micro Level:
consider what happens with the Sun’s neutrinos. Neutrinos develop inside
the Sun at enormous temperatures and have a great repulsive mass.
Since they are in the Sun’s huge gravitational field, they are
influenced by a large antigravitational force that removes and accelerates
them. The repulsive mass of neutrinos has a hidden feature in that they
almost do not react with matter. But as they go away from the Sun, they cool
down slowly, and their repulsive mass decreases. At the Earth's distance
from the Sun, their mass repulsion has decreased by so much that they start
to react with matter and we can catch them. But an interesting question is
why do we catch much easier more neutrinos coming from above, through from
the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface rather than neutrinos coming from
below, through the planet to the surface?
It is hypothesized here that the neutrinos coming through the Earth
are additionally warmed up and therefore have an increase in their repulsive
mass, and also thereby having a reduced probability of interacting with
matter. In order to easily
notice neutrinos, there is therefore a need to cool them down additionally
before coming to a detector, which would then decrease the repulsive mass
and even transform it into an attracting mass.
Now, let us consider the experiments of atoms cooling down that were done by Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Steven Chu, and William D. Phillips, winners of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1997. Leading with the logic that the concepts of “cooling down?and “slowing down?are in fact the same, they cooled atoms using by using a laser to slow them down but they ran into an unexpected problem. At very low temperatures, when atoms, in all sense seem stop moving, they would “fall like ripe apples.?span style="mso-spacerun: yes"> As the temperature became lower, their attracting mass became greater, thus the “falling like ripe apples.?o:p>
logic, the cooling down does equal to slowing down, it is logical to expand
this to warming up as being equal to speeding up.
We can then say that the speeding up of particles in accelerators is
intimately associated with their warming up.
This warming up causes a decreasing in their attracting mass.
Then after going through a massless state, particles while at great
speeds (i.e. very high temperatures) become more repulsive.
During a further speeding up of particles, their repulsive mass will
continue to increase. This increasing of a particle’s mass during a
speeding up was noticed a long time ago, but it was not clear that the
repulsive mass of particles increased, and that the decreasing and
disappearance of attracting mass happened before that.
The secret of a speeding particle’s ability to penetrate matter is
in its repulsive mass, similarly to that of neutrinos.
reason for the lack of success in the control of fusion in Tocamack was due
to the increase in the repulsive mass of electrons and ions that occurred
with the increasing temperature of the plasma.
This is why there was the sudden decomposition of the plasma's ring
despite the very strong electromagnetic fields that tried to sustain it. Without taking into account mass temperature relativity,
Tocamack should have had adequate magnetic field strength to contain the
plasma ring at fusion temperatures. Obviously
temperature relativity was a significant factor and not taking it into
account caused Tocamack to fail.
ionization of atoms and molecules is only a demonstration of changing an
electron’s mass from one of attraction to one of repulsion. The same
situation is true for the thermoemission of electrons during the warming up
phase of cathode tube.
a Macro Level:
supernovas, etc. are the greatest sources of gravitational field energy,
mainly because a large portion of the attractive mass of the universe is
located within them. Keeping
this in mind, they are also the best indicators of antigravitation because
they are, at the same time, makers of the repulsive mass.
In order to understand what happens within stars, it is enough to
examine what happens with the nearest star to us, the Sun.
consider the temperature of photosphere, which is about 5800?/span>K.
As we go from the photosphere into hromosphere, the temperature
increases very fast, rising to ten thousand degrees. The hromosphere is much
more dynamic than the photosphere with its intensive turbulent movements.
Speckles are the vertical fibers components of the hromosphere which
have a short duration of existence from 20 sec to half hour, and they are of
varying heights which on average are about 3000 km.
The corona is consists of a mixed system of rays and curves with a
fiber structure. Temperature in the rarefied gas of the corona increases to
millions of degrees and the spectrum consists of the continuity (continuum)
and emission lines of highly ionized elements. The corona is continuously
spreading out into the cosmic expanse, and in that way it makes a sun
(solar) wind, which at the Earth distance from the Sun has the speed of
approximately 400 km/h. Why is that so? Why does the temperature drastically
increase the farther away from the photosphere toward the corona, instead to
decrease? The answer is because the temperature relativity of the mass
Sun ejects the red-hot matter from the inside to the photosphere where it
cools down by evaporating and again sinking backwards.
This evaporated matter, because of its high temperature, has a very
repulsive mass within the Sun’s strong gravitational field.
This simply means that the enormous antigravitational force will
start to influence it, giving an enormous acceleration to that matter. That
antigravitational acceleration of gas matter is the cause of the quickly
increasing temperature of the hromosphere to some ten thousands of degrees.
fiber structure of the hromosphere and corona is the direct result of the
photosphere’s structure. The
photosphere is of a granular structure where some of the granules are warmer
while others are colder. Evaporations are much more intensive from the
warmer granules, and the antigravitation effect converts them into the beams
that remind us of fibers. In
these gas beams, the strong antigravitational accelerations, many
interacting collisions appear, and they provoke the sudden increase of
temperature in the hromosphere and corona, as well as the forming of heavy
metals that are highly ionized due to the conditions where they developed.
spreading and getting away from the Sun, the overheated and speeding up
matter of the corona cools and slows down due to the decreasing of the
antigravitational force and the mass repulsivity, transforming into the
so-called Sun wind. The ionization of the Sun wind elements also decreases.
After all mentioned above, we have to make expand our understanding
of the stars.
use their fuel very economically in the processes that are occurring inside.
The temperature within the stars inside is surely higher than at the
photosphere, but not drastically so, because the processes of making energy
are slow. The stars are made up
of a dense red-hot plasma that is mainly slow and with the weak oscillations
of the intensity, boils. When the star boiling is not slow and uniform, we
notice the hasty evaporation of its material.
Due to the enormous antigravitation, its material gets out into the
surrounding space, and the star after some time slows down again.
A similar situation is with the pulsars.
In any case, the enormous energy, emitted by the stars into the
surrounding space, comes from the great potential energy within their
the stars are efficient creators of energy as well as heavy metals via the
utilization of their gravitational field and they use their fuel very
economically, it is clear that the process of their evolution is very slow.
This means that the universe may be much older than we think it is.
Now, we can say something about the cosmos.
research has come to the discovery that the universe is not only expanding
but it is spreading at a faster and faster pace.
How can it be explained the universe’s rate of expansion is
increasing rather than slowing down?
As numerous stars within galaxies, and galaxies emit their winds, the
solar particles are composed of particles with repulsive mass; it simply
means that the concentration of repulsive mass within the intergalactic
space is constantly increasing. That
constant increasing of repulsive mass within the intergalactic space
provokes the faster rate of expansion of the entire cosmos.
increasing repulsive mass within the universe could mean that the universe
is in a process of warming up, as evident by its increasing rate of
expansion. The destiny of
universe completely depends on the nature of star evolution.
At this moment, the universe is spreading faster and faster, and it
will last until the stars “work hurriedly.?span style="mso-spacerun: yes">
When the stars begin to go out, there will be a decrease in the
universe’s rate of expansion associated with a cooling down which will
decrease the value of the repulsive mass and increase the value of the
essence of all, the top-level game of nature to change the mass in both
quantity and quality, depending on the temperature, can be found as
discussed here. In order to comprehend what is really going on with the
matter in terms of temperature relativity, more time, more experiments, and
much more logic will be needed. Such
an understanding will change the state of current physics as we pace bravely
forward toward the complete truth.
Richard C. Tolman, "Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology", at
the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1969
Steven Weinberg, "The First Three Minutes" Cambridge,
V.I. Grigorev, G.Y. Myakishev, "Forces in the Nature", Nauka,
Moscow, 1988 (in Russian)
L.D. Landau, J.B. Rumer, "What is the Theory of Relativity?"
Soviet Russia, Moscow, 1963 (in Russian)
Joe Schwartz, Michael McGuinness, "Einstein for Beginners",
Pantheon Books, New York, 1979
?Journal of Theoretics, Inc. 1999-2000 (Note: all submissions become the property of the Journal)