Journal of Theoretics


Author:  Carlos Calvet, Ph.D.

Abstract:  The Background Field Theory (BF Theory) was able to explain the nature of inertia, as well as of that of gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Later, it was revealed to even predict the existence of so called "Torsion Fields."  This would be the first time that all these phenomena were unified in a unique model.  Furthermore, it has been recently revealed that Russian astronomers may have already detected the BF during the late 70's as a radiation or source that is able to produce gravitation. More than 20 years later, this author developed the model of the BF while the Russian evidence of such was still under secrecy after the Cold War.

The BF theory makes superfluous the need for time or chronological effects to explain phenomena such as "non-locality" or "entangled particles" because of the unlimited velocity that particles may have in the "diluted" regions of the BF.  In the synthesis of the Big Bang theory and BF theory, the origin of the BF has been assigned to a so-called "Primordial Star" (PS), produced by the implosion that might have accompanied the explosion of some initial particle during the Big Bang. Such a PS would be still inside our universe and could be used as "cosmic lighthouse" for future interstellar navigation.  

Keywords:  Background Field, Big Bang, EM fields, gravitation, inertia, strings, Torsion Fields



Probably the most unknown of all physical aspects is inertia, the instantaneous opposition to the acceleration of material objects. It was formerly believed that inertia was the result of the motion from all of the matter that exists in the universe (Mach's Principle), but this belief has never been formulated successfully1 and has even been found to be false2.  Furthermore, the experiments of Hughes and Drever2 showed that "the entity that produces inertia, if other than matter itself, displays a great degree of isotropy".

Recently, Haisch, Rueda & Puthoff proposed that "inertia could be interpreted, at least in part, as a reaction force originating in the interactions between the electromagnetic Zero-Point Field (ZPF) and the elementary charged components (quarks and electrons) of matter.”3 Rueda & Haisch developed a more simple concept that "would substitute Mach's principle and imply that no further mass-giving Higgs-type fields may be required to explain the inertia of material objects."4

An additional approach to the still unknown origin of inertia was made by Calvet5, the author, who proposed the existence of a so called "Background Field" (BF), the origin not only of inertia, but also of gravitation and electromagnetic fields, as well as being responsible for cosmology and all its implications.

The concept of the BF was created and based on the most ample pure logic. It should include, an explanation in plain words and not contradict General and Relativistic Physics as well as Cosmology and especially, the above-mentioned findings (isotropy, ZPF, etc.). The result was the creation of a model that effectively predicted the existence of an absolute isotropic field, the Background Field (BF), located inside an absolute void space. In this sense, the BF would consist of virtual gravitons (VG) linked by strings (derived from common String Theories), so that contractions of the BF would generate gravitational fields, rotation would generate electromagnetic fields, while in the so called "holes" of the BF, the absolute void beneath the BF would emerge, thereby allowing particles to practically accelerate to an infinite speed.

This latter property of the BF made obsolete the concept of "time," when trying to explain how present, past, and future are interconnected6,7, how a particle could be in different places at the same time8 and even with regard to the properties of so called "non-locality" or "entangled particles"9,10,11 since an unlimited velocity would allow any particle to be in instantaneous contact with the rest of the universe without any delay. The above properties of "non-locality" and "entangled particles" seemed to demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, "there is nothing to prevent instantaneous interactions between particles, no matter the distance between them," and is furthermore the principle of action of the BF as explained in Calvet.5

In addition, the BF theory explains in a simple way the existence of so called "Torsion Fields" (TF), as introduced by Shipov, Spasskii & Moskovskii, and others. To understand how the BF originates TFs, we must remember that any conventional elementary particle has a spin (electrons/quarks = 1/2, photons = 1, gravitons = 2) and that since material particles are constantly spinning around their own axis, they constantly interact with the BF, since they are submerged in it.  While this interaction produces (according to Calvet5 and Calvet12) gravitation waves, interactions with bosons do not give place to the emission of any particle or wave. Instead, their ground linear movement turns into an oscillation around the virtual particles of the BF, so that we observe boson waves instead of boson beams in our universe (the wavy nature of bosons). Fermions, on the contrary, interact physically with virtual gravitons of the BF, so that the spin of fermions is transferred to the BF, making a region close to the interaction zone spin harmonically with the fermion, thus building an elementary Torsion Field (TF).

In this sense, TFs might be of any size since they could be produced by any kind of spin, rotation, or orbit. So, there are possible various types of TFs, from smaller to larger such as that produced by elementary particles (fermion spin), atoms (electron orbits), molecules and macroscopic objects (i.e., a turning wheel or molecule), moons and planets (orbits around planets or a star), or even galaxies (rotation of a galaxy).

After stating that the BF theory explained very well all that was mentioned above and also strange additional phenomena, like antigravity13 and superluminous speed, without destructive effects14; more evidences and effects of the BF were shown in Calvet.12 It was suggested among other things, that the "extremely high temperature of the solar photosphere (up to 2x106°C) with respect to the material surface of the sun (approx. 4000°C) could be explained by the high pressure of radiation that just leaves the surface of the sun and produces large "holes" in the surrounding BF. The lack of resistance in such holes would allow photons to accelerate beyond "c," thus gaining more energy and causing an increase of the temperature in the corona".

In his first popular scientific book, Calvet15 developed, in part independent of the BF theory, propulsion systems for spacecrafts that could be able to navigate through the outer space, while fulfilling 2 of the 3 main principles of NASA for future spacecraft which are: 1) travel with practically no fuel and 2) travel with a speed that could approach or even exceed that of the speed of light. The 3rd principle (new energy sources) was found to be irrelevant, since the available sources (and even Newtonian physics) already allow principles 1 and 2.  In addition, when applying the principles of the BF theory, a spacecraft could even navigate in a similar manner as an elementary particle in outer space.


Detection of the Background Field

To the surprise of this author, it was recently revealed that already in the late 70's, Russian scientists had found a field or energy source that had effects exactly equivalent to those predicted by the BF.  Such a field that exists independently from matter and other energy sources and that in its original form (a 3D net of virtual gravitons) would be more evident in the outer space than near galaxies, since in presence of matter it interacts becoming a gravitational field (thus emitting gravitation waves).

In October 1977, the Russian astronomers Kosyrev and Nasonov performed measurements of several stellar objects, using for the first time a crystal detector grown outside the gravitation field of the earth. They wanted to measure the detailed intensity profiles of some objects, in order to verify astrophysical models. It was expected to find maximal radiation intensity in the center of the galaxies, while the intensity towards the periphery was expected to decrease exponentially in agreement with the lower star density in these regions.

But contrary to the expected scenario, the new detector provided an intensity profile, that was exactly contrary to the light profile expected, e.g. with a minimum in the center of the galaxies and a maximum towards the boarders. Even with the reflector covered by a metal plate, the signal they received remained unchanged. After shielding and compensating the detector in different ways, the effect could not be eliminated and was even stronger in certain cases.

After years of further research in an attempt to seek a logic explanation, they concluded that the measured effect was definitely gravitation. Ample laboratory experiments they performed have confirmed that the detector was extremely sensible to gravitation.  But contrary to any known gravitation theory (e.g. Newton, Einstein), the effect was not stronger close to matter (galaxies), rather it was stronger further away in the outer space.

They suggested that "if gravitation is anti-symmetric to electromagnetic waves (light), the only explanation that remains is that gravitation is a medium, that is generated in space and absorbed by matter. Matter is therefore not an emitter of gravitation, but a ‘collector.’ Probably, at the marginal regions of the observed galaxies, gravitation is being converted into matter, and closer to the stars, gravitation is probably absorbed strongly, so that here, a deficit of gravity appears".16

From 1978 to 1979, the detector worked in a semiautomatic way and detected twin and even triple intensity profiles. After eliminating all possible errors, the authors stated that each galaxy had up to three profiles that were practically identical and shifted mutually to a constant distance. Astronomic calculations revealed that this distance corresponded exactly to the way the galaxy had run during the time it took the light from the galaxy to reach the earth. They then directly deduced firstly that the profile (left to right) corresponded to the position of the galaxy at the moment t=t0-r/c (e.g., in the past); secondly, to its current position t=t0 (the present); and thirdly, to the future position of the galaxy at the moment t=t0+r/c, where "r" is the distance from the galaxy to Earth.16

Finally they concluded that "even if the future cannot be calculated, it could be observated".16  But even if some of their findings met the geometry Minkowski-space (a space, where past, present and future can coexist), their observations contradicted Special Relativity.  Therefore, they were forbidden to continue their research, even though they had been able to determine for the first time in history, the complete velocity vectors for galaxies in a 3D space.


Conclusions Drawn from the Kosyrev & Nasonov's Findings

Firstly, we observe that the above findings are completely coincident with the predictions of the "Background Field (BF) Theory":

1.     There exists an isotropic field in the universe (the most isotropic of all fields is a field with the properties of the BF).

2.     The isotropic field is independent to the presence of matter [Calvet15].

3.     The isotropic field is able to generate gravitation [Calvet5 & Calvet12].

4.     The isotropic field weakens in presence of matter (as it produces gravitation waves that "dilute" the BF [Calvet12]).

5.     The effects of the isotropic field cannot be shielded by metal plates, as in the case of light (since it is "hyperfluid" [Calvet15]).


Secondly, we observe that there were 3 copies of the signal profile found, shifted mutually by a concrete value. Though this phenomenon has been explained with the aid of stationary waves, chronons, or even Torsion Fields, there are other easier explanations that are not completely impossible as discussed in the following paragraph.

Thirdly, we observe that the cited crystal detector was grown outside the reach of the gravitation field of the earth. This means that the structure of the crystal was not affected by gravitation so that it would be (even from a theoretical point of view) an excellent detector of gravitation and any kind of predecessor field that is able to produce gravitation (in this case, the BF). In this sense, if the crystal is such a good detector of gravitation, it is not negligible to suppose that it has effectively detected the BF (in outer space) and the dilution effect of boson waves on the BF closer to galaxies (since matter produces "BF-diluting" waves [gravitational, EM] while interacting with the BF).

But while the intensity increase of the signal towards the outer space indicates that there must be effectively some kind of isotropic field that produces such signals (the BF), the presence of a triple intensity profile could be theoretically, even a simple artifact, created by the measuring methods that were all very similar. In this sense, and if no other simple explanation can be given to the coexistence of 3 identical shifted profiles, I suggest to await more concrete data and different experiments that will probably allow us to explain this finding in a simple way, even if the given scenario seemed to be "out of the reach" of classical physics.

The fact that the 3 profiles found did not have the same intensity, seems to suggest that it is only one profile that has been reflected into 3 by some kind of reflection between the crystal and the galaxies. A good way to demonstrate that the are no time effects, would be to use a much more sensible detector. If this detector receives not only 3, but more copies of a main signal, this would definitely mean that the copies of the signal are being produced by conventional reflection and not by exotic "time or chronological effects".

Finally, a triple signal could also be produced in a natural way by objects with a halo or two or more rings as is usual in neutron stars and many other celestial formations. In this case, the central body of the star would produce the main signal, while portions of the halo or a ring to the left and a ring to the right would produce 2 additional faded signals that, under certain circumstances, would be very similar to the main signal. There are many other possibilities in explaining the triple signal and I suggest it is better not to take the most fantastic one.


Origin of the Background Field

Like any other field, the above mentioned BF ought to have a source. In this sense, in Calvet15, a new cosmic concept is introduced: the "Primordial Star" (PS).

The PS is a concept that revealed to be evidently missing in any cosmic theory. If we take for example the most common theory, the so called "Big Bang Theory", known by all of us, we see that there seems to have been an enormous explosion of some kind of dense initial particle, and that this explosion, approx. 11 billions of years ago, seems to have generated all the matter in the universe, probably together with the corresponding space.

Even if there are severe doubts that the Big Bang has ever taken place,17,18 mainly because the Red Shift and the Cosmic Background Radiation could be explained by the fading of photon energy due to the proven interaction of light and charged particles in the universe19, the presence of the universe still ought to be explained in some way, even if we suggest that it began with the ‘explosion of a soap bubble in the bath of some superior being’. And, even if the Red Shift and the Cosmic Background Radiation proved to be no good indicators for an initial Big Bang, this does not mean that something like a Big Bang did absolutely not take place.

In this restricted sense, and if we review the Big Bang Theory, we find that it does not meet Newton's 3rd Law of Dynamics, because any explosion (i.e. Big Bang) might be accompanied by a parallel implosion. Therefore, if we accept in some way, that the universe has been created by some kind of explosion that has dissipated matter (galaxies), we must also accept that there might have been a parallel implosion that compressed the core of the original particle or star that exploded.

This process is very well known, for example in stars that, according to its initial mass, produce a residual body called White Dwarf, Neutron Star or Black Hole, depending on the initial mass of the original star.  In consequence, the ancestral explosion of the particle or star that might have given place to the universe might have also produced an extremely compressed body as in the above-mentioned cases of conventional stars. And this ancestral body is equivalent to the "Primordial Star" (PS) in the BF theory.  (Even if the Big Bang theory talks about an initial "particle" that exploded, it seems to me more reasonable to talk also about a "star" because of the enormous mass of the here considered body).

We might still be able to detect the above mentioned PS in our universe. Since the PS would probably be still placed near the very center of the universe, it could be eventually used as "cosmic lighthouse" for future interstellar navigation and may be, even as unlimited energy source, once detected (Calvet15).

In accordance to Bennett21, light can be thought of as "evaporated mass" and mass as "condensed light" according to the transformation equation, E = mc2. If we take this principle and extend it to the above-mentioned scenario with a recently created PS, we will come to the conclusion that a body like the PS should effectively evaporate little by little when located inside a completely void universe. This process would be analogous to the "evaporation process" of Black Holes20 and would in addition be a very likely source of the "Background Field" (BF).

Since any particle (real or virtual) can be explained by strings, one important conclusion of the BF theory is that any kind of elementary particle has in principle the same origin and different particles are simply a different manifestation of the same ancestral string. This conclusion gives place to the possibility of transmutation of one particle into another (e.g. of matter into energy and of energy into matter) not only in an Einstein-like sense, but also in the sense that it might be possible to extract a virtual particle from a field of force and convert it into a real particle like a photon or even an electron. If humanity manages to achieve this goal, we would be able to manipulate the universe even far beyond the combined principles of nanotechnology and String theories.

In agreement to neutron stars or Black Holes as the result of supernovae explosions, we can imagine the PS as an extremely condensed body or star, with probably a mass of approximately 10% of the mass of the whole matter in the universe. The PS might spin around its own axis at a speed that could be even not comparable to the speed of light. Due to its extremely high mass, the PS might produce a complete punctual distortion of the surrounding space, so that it even would no longer be located inside our 3D universe, but inside a "bag" in the so called "Hyperspace" (a space with more than 3 spatial dimensions).

Opposite to Black Holes that are believed to be "punctual," the PS is probably even much less than this. It could have a positive size in hyperspace, but a negative size in our 3D universe, so that we would not be able to measure its size if we did not manage to leave our universe and enter the hyperspace. Once in hyperspace (if we could survive there), we would probably see the PS as a relatively huge spinning object that seems to challenge any known physics or even the purest mathematics. Its specific weight would be so enormous that one simple grain of the PS, placed inside a galaxy, would act as a huge Black Hole, absorbing the whole galaxy within fractions of seconds. The PS probably consists in a huge "ball of strings", where strings are so intensely condensed that they practically build a continuum. It would therefore be the most solid body that had ever existed in the universe. But, while aging, it would "evaporate" in the above-mentioned manner, thus producing a BF that allows us humans to live in an otherwise dead universe. As a direct result of the interaction of the BF and the matter dispersed by the Big Bang, other secondary fields like gravitational, EM and Torsion Fields may appear, giving our universe its definite shape and properties.

We should be able to detect the exact position of the PS, since it would be the most energetic body in the universe. Similarly to pulsars, quasars and other extremely energetic stellar bodies, the PS should be spinning at a very high speed, while producing at the same time very energetic radiation. Since the most energetic of all known radiation are gamma rays and cosmic rays of still unknown origin, the presence of the PS could explain where cosmic rays come from and why a Background Gamma Radiation and even spontaneous gamma ray explosions exist in the outer space.

Finally, I wanted to mention here again the main consequences of the BF theory for future interstellar navigation and technology:

·     The BF can be "diluted" by a flood of EM-radiation, so that inside the diluted regions, speeds beyond the speed of light are possible for any particle or body, even for spacecrafts.

·     The PS, when detected, could be used as a "cosmic lighthouse," thus allowing future interstellar navigation, even to remote galaxies without loosing control of the route.

·     Any elementary particle, no matter if real (bosons, fermions) or virtual (fields of force), can be considered as an association of more or less condensed and/or twisted strings, so that it is theoretically possible to convert one particle into another, no matter its nature is, provided we know how to manipulate strings.


Cited References:  

1.     W. H. McCrea, Nature 230, 95 (1971).

2.     S. Weinberg, "Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity" (Wiley, New York, 1972), pp. 86-88.

3.     B. Haisch, A. Rueda & H. E. Puthoff, "Inertia as a Zero-Point Field Lorenz Force", Phys. Rev. A 49, 678 (1994)

4.     A. Rueda & B. Haisch, "Inertia as reaction of the vacuum to accelerated motion", Physics Letters A, Vol. 240, No. 3, 1998, p.115

5.     Calvet C; "The Background Field Theory", Journal of Theoretics, Vol.1, No.5, Dec 1999/Jan 2000.

6.     G.I. Shipov "Teoriya fizicheskogo vacuuma." ("Theory of physical vacuum"), Moscow, 1993, NT-Center, 362 p. (in Russian).

7.     B. Spasskii, A. Moskovskii, "Non-Locality in Quantum Physics," Sov. Phys. Usp., vol. 27, no. 4, 1984, p 273.

8.     M. Chown, "All the World's a Time-Machine," New Scientist, 7 March, 1998, p. 38.

9.     D. Boumeester et al., "Experimental Quantum Teleportation," Nature, vol. 390, 11 Dec 1997, p. 575.

10.  M. Buchanan, "Beyond Reality," New Scientist, 14 March 1998, p. 27

11.  T. Sudbery, "The Fastest Way from A to B," Nature, vol. 390, 11 Dec 1997, p. 551

12.  Calvet C; "Effects and Evidence of the "Background Field"",  Extraterrestrial Physics Review - EPR, Japan, Vol.1, No.3, March 2000.

13.  E.E. Podkletnov (Moscow Chem. Scientific. Ctr.), “Weak Gravitation Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor Below 70°K under E.M. Field," Univ. Cincinnati Engineering, report # MSU-chem 95, abstract cond-mat/9701074, 1997; 19 pp., in: NEN (New Energy News), Vol. 4, No. 12, April 1997, p. 7-26

14.  G. Nimtz, „Instantanes Tunneln - Tunnelexperimente mit elektromagnetischen Wellen"“ Phys. Bl. 49, 1993, p. 1119-1120 (in German)

15.  Calvet C: " Raumfahrzeuge der Zukunft (Spacecrafts of the Future) ", Bohmeier Verlag (Lübeck), July 2000, 105 pp. (in German).

16.  N.A. Kosyrev & V.V. Nasonov, „Properties of Time, Discovered by Astronomic Observations“, Russian Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow/Leningrad, Series “Problems of Space Research”, 9th edition (1980) (in Russian).

17.  Anastasovski, P., et al., "A New Approach to the Cosmic Red-Shift and to the Cosmic Microwave Sources," Journal of New Energy, Vol. 1, No. 2, Summer 1996.

18.  W. C. Mitchell, "The Cult of the BIG BANG, Was There a Bang?," William C. Mitchell, Cosmic Sense Books, Carson City, NV, c1995, 240 pp.

19.  B. Lehnert & S. Roy, "Extended Electromagnetic Theory, Space-Charge in vacuo and the Rest Mass of the Photon", World Scientific Series in Contemporary Chemical Physics - Vol 16, Publ. by World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, c1998, 160 pp.

20.  S. Hawking, "A Brief History of Time ", Bantham Books, NY, 1996, 271 pp.

21. Bennett, C., "Light is the Ghost of Mass," New Energy News, Vol. 5, No. 2, June, 1997, pp. 8-9.


Other References Not Specifically Cited:

  • H. Müller, "Schwerkraft-Signale aus dem All empfangen", Raum-und-Zeit, no. 104, March 2000
  • A.I. Veinik "Termodinamika rjealnyh processov" ("Thermodynamics of real processes"), Minsk, Nauka i Tehnika, 1991, 576 p. (in Russian)



I wanted to thank Hal Fox of the "Institute of New Energy" for providing information about some of the Russian authors as well as for his general support.

I hope that the BF theory is useful to other scientists, not only to redact articles, but also to achieve the ultimate goal of all of our efforts, e.g. to help NASA to build in short a spacecraft that is able to navigate through the galaxy or even through the whole universe in real time and come back to render ourselves information about other civilizations or distant places.


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