AND ORIGIN OF THE "BACKGROUND FIELD"
Carlos Calvet, Ph.D.
The Background Field
Theory (BF Theory) was able to explain the nature of inertia, as well as
of that of gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Later, it was
revealed to even predict the existence of so called "Torsion
Fields." This would be
the first time that all these phenomena were unified in a unique model.
Furthermore, it has been recently revealed that Russian astronomers
may have already detected the BF during the late 70's as a radiation or
source that is able to produce gravitation. More than 20 years later, this
author developed the model of the BF while the Russian evidence of such
was still under secrecy after the Cold War.
The BF theory makes superfluous the need for time or
chronological effects to explain phenomena such as
"non-locality" or "entangled particles" because of the
unlimited velocity that particles may have in the "diluted"
regions of the BF. In the
synthesis of the Big Bang theory and BF theory, the origin of the BF has
been assigned to a so-called "Primordial Star" (PS), produced by
the implosion that might have accompanied the explosion of some initial
particle during the Big Bang. Such a PS would be still inside our universe
and could be used as "cosmic lighthouse" for future interstellar
Field, Big Bang, EM fields, gravitation, inertia, strings, Torsion Fields
the most unknown of all physical aspects is inertia, the instantaneous
opposition to the acceleration of material objects. It was formerly
believed that inertia was the result of the motion from all of the matter
that exists in the universe (Mach's Principle), but this belief has never
been formulated successfully1 and has even been found to be
the experiments of Hughes and Drever2 showed that "the
entity that produces inertia, if other than matter itself, displays a
great degree of isotropy".
Haisch, Rueda & Puthoff proposed that "inertia could be
interpreted, at least in part, as a reaction force originating in the
interactions between the electromagnetic Zero-Point Field (ZPF) and the
elementary charged components (quarks and electrons) of matter.”3
Rueda & Haisch developed a more simple concept that "would
substitute Mach's principle and imply that no further mass-giving
Higgs-type fields may be required to explain the inertia of material
additional approach to the still unknown origin of inertia was made by
Calvet5, the author, who proposed the existence of a so called
"Background Field" (BF), the origin not only of inertia, but
also of gravitation and electromagnetic fields, as well as being
responsible for cosmology and all its implications.
concept of the BF was created and based on the most ample pure logic. It
should include, an explanation in plain words and not contradict General
and Relativistic Physics as well as Cosmology and especially, the
above-mentioned findings (isotropy, ZPF, etc.). The result was the
creation of a model that effectively predicted the existence of an
absolute isotropic field, the Background Field (BF), located inside an absolute
void space. In this sense, the BF would consist of virtual gravitons (VG)
linked by strings (derived from common String Theories), so that
contractions of the BF would generate gravitational fields, rotation would
generate electromagnetic fields, while in the so called "holes"
of the BF, the absolute void beneath the BF would emerge, thereby allowing
particles to practically accelerate to an infinite speed.
This latter property of the BF made obsolete the concept of
"time," when trying to explain how present, past, and future are
interconnected6,7, how a particle could be in different places
at the same time8 and even with regard to the properties of so
called "non-locality" or "entangled particles"9,10,11
since an unlimited velocity would allow any particle to be in
instantaneous contact with the rest of the universe without any delay. The
above properties of "non-locality" and "entangled
particles" seemed to demonstrate that, under certain circumstances,
"there is nothing to prevent instantaneous
interactions between particles, no matter the distance between them,"
and is furthermore the principle of action of the BF as explained in
In addition, the BF theory explains in a simple way the existence of so
called "Torsion Fields" (TF), as introduced by Shipov, Spasskii
& Moskovskii, and others. To understand how the BF originates TFs, we
must remember that any conventional elementary particle has a spin
(electrons/quarks = 1/2, photons = 1, gravitons = 2) and that since
material particles are constantly spinning around their own axis, they
constantly interact with the BF, since they are submerged in it.
While this interaction produces (according to Calvet5
and Calvet12) gravitation waves, interactions with bosons do
not give place to the emission of any particle or wave. Instead, their
ground linear movement turns into an oscillation around the virtual
particles of the BF, so that we observe boson waves instead of boson beams
in our universe (the wavy nature of bosons). Fermions, on the contrary,
interact physically with virtual gravitons of the BF, so that the spin of
fermions is transferred to the BF, making a region close to the
interaction zone spin harmonically with the fermion, thus building an
elementary Torsion Field (TF).
In this sense, TFs might be of any size since they could be produced by
any kind of spin, rotation, or orbit. So, there are possible various types
of TFs, from smaller to larger such as that produced by elementary
particles (fermion spin), atoms (electron orbits), molecules and
macroscopic objects (i.e., a turning wheel or molecule), moons and planets
(orbits around planets or a star), or even galaxies (rotation of a
stating that the BF theory explained very well all that was mentioned
above and also strange additional phenomena, like antigravity13
and superluminous speed, without destructive effects14; more
evidences and effects of the BF were shown in Calvet.12 It was
suggested among other things, that the "extremely high temperature of
the solar photosphere (up to 2x106°C) with respect to
the material surface of the sun (approx. 4000°C) could be explained by
the high pressure of radiation that just leaves the surface of the sun and
produces large "holes" in the surrounding BF. The lack of
resistance in such holes would allow photons to accelerate beyond "c,"
thus gaining more energy and causing an increase of the temperature in the
In his first popular scientific book, Calvet15 developed, in
part independent of the BF theory, propulsion systems for spacecrafts that
could be able to navigate through the outer space, while fulfilling 2 of
the 3 main principles of NASA for future spacecraft which are: 1) travel
with practically no fuel and 2) travel with a speed that could approach or
even exceed that of the speed of light. The 3rd principle (new
energy sources) was found to be irrelevant, since the available sources
(and even Newtonian physics) already allow principles 1 and 2.
In addition, when applying the principles of the BF theory, a
spacecraft could even navigate in a similar manner as an elementary
particle in outer space.
the Background Field
the surprise of this author, it was recently revealed that already in the
late 70's, Russian scientists had found a field or energy source that had
effects exactly equivalent to those predicted by the BF.
Such a field that exists independently from matter and other energy
sources and that in its original form (a 3D net of virtual gravitons)
would be more evident in the outer space than near galaxies, since in
presence of matter it interacts becoming a gravitational field (thus
emitting gravitation waves).
In October 1977, the Russian astronomers Kosyrev and Nasonov performed
measurements of several stellar objects, using for the first time a
crystal detector grown outside the gravitation field of the earth. They
wanted to measure the detailed intensity profiles of some objects, in
order to verify astrophysical models. It was expected to find maximal
radiation intensity in the center of the galaxies, while the intensity
towards the periphery was expected to decrease exponentially in agreement
with the lower star density in these regions.
But contrary to the expected scenario, the new detector provided an
intensity profile, that was exactly contrary to the light profile expected, e.g. with a minimum
in the center of the galaxies and a maximum towards the boarders. Even
with the reflector covered by a metal plate, the signal they received
remained unchanged. After shielding and compensating the detector in
different ways, the effect could not be eliminated and was even stronger
in certain cases.
After years of further research in an attempt to seek a logic
explanation, they concluded that the measured effect was definitely
gravitation. Ample laboratory experiments they performed have confirmed
that the detector was extremely sensible to gravitation.
But contrary to any known gravitation theory (e.g. Newton,
Einstein), the effect was not stronger close to matter (galaxies), rather
it was stronger further away in the outer space.
They suggested that "if gravitation is anti-symmetric to
electromagnetic waves (light), the only explanation that remains is that
gravitation is a medium, that is generated in space and absorbed by
matter. Matter is therefore not an emitter of gravitation, but a
‘collector.’ Probably, at the marginal regions of the observed
galaxies, gravitation is being converted into matter, and closer to the
stars, gravitation is probably absorbed strongly, so that here, a deficit
of gravity appears".16
From 1978 to 1979, the detector worked in a semiautomatic way and
detected twin and even triple intensity profiles. After eliminating all
possible errors, the authors stated that each galaxy had up to three
profiles that were practically identical and shifted mutually to a
constant distance. Astronomic calculations revealed that this distance
corresponded exactly to the way the galaxy had run during the time it took
the light from the galaxy to reach the earth. They then directly deduced
firstly that the profile (left to right) corresponded to the position of
the galaxy at the moment t=t0-r/c (e.g., in the past); secondly, to its
current position t=t0 (the present); and thirdly, to the future position
of the galaxy at the moment t=t0+r/c, where "r" is the
distance from the galaxy to Earth.16
Finally they concluded that "even if the future cannot be
calculated, it could be observated".16
But even if some of their findings met the geometry Minkowski-space
(a space, where past, present and future can coexist), their observations
contradicted Special Relativity. Therefore, they were forbidden to continue their research,
even though they had been able to determine for the first time in history,
the complete velocity vectors for galaxies in a 3D space.
Conclusions Drawn from the Kosyrev & Nasonov's Findings
Firstly, we observe that the above findings are completely coincident
with the predictions of the "Background Field (BF) Theory":
There exists an isotropic field in the universe (the most isotropic
of all fields is a field with the properties of the BF).
The isotropic field is independent to the presence of matter
The isotropic field is able to generate gravitation [Calvet5
The isotropic field weakens in presence of matter (as it produces
gravitation waves that "dilute" the BF [Calvet12]).
The effects of the isotropic field cannot be shielded by metal
plates, as in the case of light (since it is "hyperfluid"
we observe that there were 3 copies of the signal profile found, shifted
mutually by a concrete value. Though this phenomenon has been explained
with the aid of stationary waves, chronons, or even Torsion Fields, there
are other easier explanations that are not completely impossible as
discussed in the following paragraph.
Thirdly, we observe that the cited crystal detector was grown outside
the reach of the gravitation field of the earth. This means that the
structure of the crystal was not affected by gravitation so that it would
be (even from a theoretical point of view) an excellent detector of
gravitation and any kind of predecessor field that is able to produce
gravitation (in this case, the BF). In this sense, if the crystal is such
a good detector of gravitation, it is not negligible to suppose that it
has effectively detected the BF (in outer space) and the dilution effect
of boson waves on the BF closer to galaxies (since matter produces
"BF-diluting" waves [gravitational, EM] while interacting with
But while the intensity increase of the signal towards the outer space
indicates that there must be effectively some kind of isotropic field that
produces such signals (the BF), the presence of a triple intensity profile
could be theoretically, even a simple artifact, created by the measuring
methods that were all very similar. In this sense, and if no other simple
explanation can be given to the coexistence of 3 identical shifted
profiles, I suggest to await more concrete data and different experiments
that will probably allow us to explain this finding in a simple way, even
if the given scenario seemed to be "out of the reach" of
The fact that the 3 profiles found did not have the same intensity,
seems to suggest that it is only one profile that has been reflected into
3 by some kind of reflection between the crystal and the galaxies. A good
way to demonstrate that the are no time effects, would be to use a much more sensible
detector. If this detector receives not only 3, but more copies of a main signal, this would definitely mean that the
copies of the signal are being produced by conventional reflection and not
by exotic "time or chronological effects".
Finally, a triple signal could also be produced in a natural way by
objects with a halo or two or more rings as is usual in neutron stars and
many other celestial formations. In this case, the central body of the
star would produce the main signal, while portions of the halo or a ring
to the left and a ring to the right would produce 2 additional faded
signals that, under certain circumstances, would be very similar to the
main signal. There are many other possibilities in explaining the triple
signal and I suggest it is better not to take the most fantastic one.
Origin of the
any other field, the above mentioned BF ought to have a source. In this
sense, in Calvet15, a new cosmic concept is introduced: the
"Primordial Star" (PS).
PS is a concept that revealed to be evidently missing in any cosmic
theory. If we take for example the most common theory, the so called
"Big Bang Theory", known by all of us, we see that there seems
to have been an enormous explosion of some kind of dense initial particle,
and that this explosion, approx. 11 billions of years ago, seems to have
generated all the matter in the universe, probably together with the
if there are severe doubts that the Big Bang has ever taken place,17,18
mainly because the Red Shift and the Cosmic Background Radiation could be
explained by the fading of photon energy due to the proven interaction of
light and charged particles in the universe19, the presence of
the universe still ought to be explained in some way, even if we suggest
that it began with the ‘explosion of a soap bubble in the bath of some
superior being’. And, even if the Red Shift and the Cosmic Background
Radiation proved to be no good indicators for an initial Big Bang, this
does not mean that something like a Big Bang did absolutely not take
this restricted sense, and if we review the Big Bang Theory, we find that
it does not meet Newton's 3rd Law of Dynamics, because any
explosion (i.e. Big Bang) might be accompanied by a parallel implosion.
Therefore, if we accept in some way, that the universe has been created by
some kind of explosion that has dissipated matter (galaxies), we must also
accept that there might have been a parallel implosion
that compressed the core of the original particle or star that exploded.
This process is very well known, for example in stars that, according
to its initial mass, produce a residual body called White Dwarf, Neutron
Star or Black Hole, depending on the initial mass of the original star.
In consequence, the ancestral explosion of the particle or star
that might have given place to the universe might have also produced an
extremely compressed body as in the above-mentioned cases of conventional
stars. And this ancestral body is equivalent to the "Primordial
Star" (PS) in the BF theory. (Even
if the Big Bang theory talks about an initial "particle" that
exploded, it seems to me more reasonable to talk also about a
"star" because of the enormous mass of the here considered
might still be able to detect the above mentioned PS in our universe.
Since the PS would probably be still placed near the very center of the
universe, it could be eventually used as "cosmic lighthouse" for
future interstellar navigation and may be, even as unlimited energy
source, once detected (Calvet15).
accordance to Bennett21, light can be thought of as
"evaporated mass" and mass as "condensed light"
according to the transformation equation, E = mc2. If we take
this principle and extend it to the above-mentioned scenario with a
recently created PS, we will come to the conclusion that a body like the
PS should effectively evaporate little by little when located inside a
completely void universe. This process would be analogous to the
"evaporation process" of Black Holes20 and would in
addition be a very likely source of the "Background Field" (BF).
any particle (real or virtual) can be explained by strings, one important
conclusion of the BF theory is that any kind of elementary particle has in
principle the same origin and different particles are simply a different
manifestation of the same ancestral string. This conclusion gives place to
the possibility of transmutation of one particle into another (e.g. of
matter into energy and of energy into matter) not only in an Einstein-like
sense, but also in the sense that it might be possible to extract a
virtual particle from a field of force and convert it into a real particle
like a photon or even an electron. If humanity manages to achieve this
goal, we would be able to manipulate the universe even far beyond the
combined principles of nanotechnology and String theories.
agreement to neutron stars or Black Holes as the result of supernovae
explosions, we can imagine the PS as an extremely condensed body or star,
with probably a mass of approximately 10% of the mass of the whole matter
in the universe. The PS might spin around its own axis at a speed that
could be even not comparable to the speed of light. Due to its extremely
high mass, the PS might produce a complete punctual distortion of the
surrounding space, so that it even would no longer be located inside our
3D universe, but inside a "bag" in the so called
"Hyperspace" (a space with more than 3 spatial dimensions).
to Black Holes that are believed to be "punctual," the PS is
probably even much less than this. It could have a positive size in
hyperspace, but a negative size in our 3D universe, so that we would not
be able to measure its size if we did not manage to leave our universe and
enter the hyperspace. Once in hyperspace (if we could survive there), we
would probably see the PS as a relatively huge spinning object that seems
to challenge any known physics or even the purest mathematics. Its
specific weight would be so enormous that one simple grain of the PS,
placed inside a galaxy, would act as a huge Black Hole, absorbing the
whole galaxy within fractions of seconds. The PS probably consists in a
huge "ball of strings", where strings are so intensely condensed
that they practically build a continuum. It would therefore be the most
solid body that had ever existed in the universe. But, while aging, it
would "evaporate" in the above-mentioned manner, thus producing
a BF that allows us humans to live in an otherwise dead universe. As a
direct result of the interaction of the BF and the matter dispersed by the
Big Bang, other secondary fields like gravitational, EM and Torsion Fields
may appear, giving our universe its definite shape and properties.
should be able to detect the exact position of the PS, since it would be
the most energetic body in the universe. Similarly to pulsars, quasars and
other extremely energetic stellar bodies, the PS should be spinning at a
very high speed, while producing at the same time very energetic
radiation. Since the most energetic of all known radiation are gamma rays
and cosmic rays of still unknown origin, the presence of the PS could
explain where cosmic rays come from and why a Background Gamma Radiation
and even spontaneous gamma ray explosions exist in the outer space.
· The BF can be "diluted" by a flood of EM-radiation, so
that inside the diluted regions, speeds beyond the speed of light are
possible for any particle or body, even for spacecrafts.
· The PS, when detected, could be used as a "cosmic
lighthouse," thus allowing future interstellar navigation, even to
remote galaxies without loosing control of the route.
· Any elementary particle, no matter if real (bosons, fermions) or
virtual (fields of force), can be considered as an association of more or
less condensed and/or twisted strings, so that it is theoretically
possible to convert one particle into another, no matter its nature is,
provided we know how to manipulate strings.
W. H. McCrea, Nature
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Other References Not Specifically Cited:
Müller, "Schwerkraft-Signale aus dem All empfangen",
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wanted to thank Hal Fox of the "Institute of New Energy" for
providing information about some of the Russian authors as well as for his
I hope that the BF theory is useful to other scientists, not only to
redact articles, but also to achieve the ultimate goal of all of our
efforts, e.g. to help NASA to build in short a spacecraft that is able to
navigate through the galaxy or even through the whole universe in real
time and come back to render ourselves information about other
civilizations or distant places.