Author:  J.Ghitis   ghitis@isdn.net.il

Abstract:  This essay deals with the what the universe is made of. No reference is made to the Big Bang and the Big Crunch, or to the Beginning and the End, or to Nothingness and Infiniteness.  Many of the ideas expressed are actually statements based on uncontested facts.  Other ideas represent postulates accepted by many scientists, while others are clearly posited as the author's own which are influenced by what he calls the "Geometrical Principle" which considers that there are 3 to 4 basic components of physical reality since the triangle is the first planar figure with  a fourth side providing it depth.  A dramatic example of such principle is provided by photons which are composed of two antithetical halves with the photon actually being a neutral "pair," which represents the third constituent of the said "triangle."


Keywords: matter, vibration, mass, particle, inertia, energy, spin, gravity.



Matter, Mass, & Energy


MATTER:  is protium and its derivatives.  Protium is better known as hydrogen, which is made up of one proton and one encircling electron.   Hydrogen, in evolutionary physics, is the atomic emergent: the primal chemical entity.  Subsequent elements created by the natural fusion process are thereby derived from hydrogen.  H2 is the molecular emergent.  For the purposes of this essay, the following definitions are used:  


There is only one matter (M) and there are three categories of mass:

  1. The one in matter, known as m,

  2. The nonmaterial mass, which I will refer to as nm.

  3. The proto-mass (pm).


There are three categories of energy which will be described later on in detail.  Yet, since it is impractical to explain mass without mentioning energy, the term proto-energy will be used now as referring to the most elementary form of energy.  


MASS (m): that aspect of matter that is made up of nonmaterial mass (nm) that underwent extreme compaction, as explained later on.  They compose units called quarks, which in turn are compacted into a proton.  


Yet even the nonmaterial mass (nm) is composed of subunits, which are  the proto-mass (pm).  Proto-mass is made of vibrations, while proto-energy is in their various spins.  These vibrations are distinct from what we understand by that name because they are not properties of an elastic body, but physical entities.  I refer to them as Physical Vibrations (PV).


I posit that the elementary particles are of two incongruent kinds of which one is "dominant" and more stable than the other.  I further posit that they spin in opposite directions, and are configured in "pairs."   The basic structure of PVs and nm is conserved in the final material manifestation as e-p+ pairs. Subsequently, a trio of quarks is compacted into a proton after the expulsion of one electron.  The latter reaches a distant location that is determined by the proton's "micro event-horizon," which fixes the atom's boundaries. Protium is thus born.


I further posit that gravity derives from the paired opposite spins of PVs, nonmaterial mass (nm) and the  e-p+s that constitute the mass in quarks. It is this gravitational pull that successionally compacts them into protons.  At the present time, it is not clear if the hundreds of entities called "nuclear particles" that have been described so far are real individualities or shattered derivatives of the basic ones in the quarks.  For that reason, the isolated term "particle" will be used in a non-committal way.


ENERGY:  an entity that must invest itself unto elementary and material (m) masses.  In the quantum realm, it might be considered as a fluid that flows directly from one particle to another, assuming the properties that are dictated by the given particle. For instance, the energy attached to electrons is called electricity.  In the Newtonian realm, energy flows through atoms, molecules, and their derivatives.


I therefore posit that all energy ultimately derives from the spins of PVs.  Thus matter is "packets of spinning vibrations."  Mutually "annihilated" particles actually change their PV's composition and spins, meaning that the particles undergo a complex processes, but cannot be destroyed, i.e., mass cannot be converted into energy.       


There are three tiers of energy:


Potential, atomic E of matter (M) is convertible to photonic energy (pE) as explained later on.


The dynamics of energy are the expression of "change," and are interpreted as "time." Thus, in the absence of energy, Minkowski's space-time graph would be static. The international unit of time is the second, which is a subunit derived from the duration of a complete rotation of the planet Earth. 



Physical Properties


Inertia is an intrinsic property of mass which is manifested by the opposition of a body to a change in motion.  A resting body's inertial critical limit is the maximal force that is unable to move it. A moving body's inertia's critical limit varies linearly relative to its velocity.  These properties of mass I call “Limits of the First Kind.”


When a mass/matter/body attains a velocity approaching light's, a Limit of the Second Kind is reached at a given point, where the mass is considered as being "increased" or possessing "high energy," and its "time" is said to be "warped." A certain parallelism to such postulate may be considered to be manifested by the factual changes suffered by molecules submitted to very high heat intensity, which at a "critical point" become reversibly ionized gas (plasma).


Weight, as usually understood, is a standardized quantification of any mass under the influence of the Earth's gravity.  The international unit of weight, inertia, and mass is the kilogram. This means that only weight is absent in interstellar space while inertia and mass remain. In any place, in the absence of friction, an astronaut will find the same opposition to movement from the same body because their respective quantitative masses and therefore their inertial properties remain unchanged.  


Force, in the present essay, is first defined within the classical mechanical framework, as being a property of mass in motion, a hybrid of mass and velocity, which is called momentum. It is considered to be kinetic energy, which is manifested according to its intensity and manner of acting. 


In the special case when a resting body that possesses potential kinetic energy, due to gravitational or electrical attraction, starts moving toward the attracting body, said energy becomes force, i.e. momentum. Regardless of the source of movement, when impacting another body, the velocity constituent of that momentum is converted into heat and another part into the kinetic energy (momentum) of the affected body if it is free to move.

If the impact is tangential, it is called friction. The friction of a body in motion alongside a static one, causes a decrease in momentum at the expense of heat and static electricity in both.  If both bodies are in motion, the one with less momentum gains more kinetic energy at the other's expense. Heat and electricity changes depend on the respective component materials.


Kinetic energy is a unique energy because it depends on mass.  Since, in the Newtonian realm, it derives from gravity's surplus of matter-creative momentum, it well might be considered as the source of all available energies.  Being movement related to change, and therefore to time, it could be seen as a fifth dimension of matter. 


Pressure is force that is applied to a resting body that is unable to change its position. In space only gravitational attraction can act in such manner with the particularity that the body is a cloud of gas or dust that the force originates from the very same cloud that is undergoing compaction.


When immense "clouds" of PVs and subsequently nm reach critical densities, their own gravity then compresses them culminating in the creation of protium.  In turn, once critical concentrations are attained, the clouds of protium (with some deuterium and tritium) are compressed, giving rise to different sorts of stars. The critical concentrations are perhaps influenced by the proportion of dust arriving from supernovas, thus explaining the variegated star properties.


As quarks and then protons are formed, the originator momentum, acting as pressure, becomes potential protonic energy.  This energy is perhaps in the form of gluons, which are theoretical entities that embody the force that is invested in creating quarks and protons.  Part of this momentum gives the protons their almost everlasting spin, the electron falling under the influence of the spinning proton. 


Further gravitational pressure converts some protons and electrons into neutrons. The stage is then ready for even a greater pressure in colossal hydrogen clouds to force hydrogen and isotopes to overcome their repulsion and fuse them into helium. In this fusion process, protons and their quarks open up letting out a small proportion of their mass particles and their associated protonic energy.  The resulting products of the investment of the liberated protonic energy on the myriads of PVs dissociated from the expelled mass, constitute now a whole spectrum of photons.  They are the radiating star energy, affecting whatever distant target they reach, and originating a self-sustaining (chain reaction) process modulated by the presence of the resulting helium.  This bonding, considered to be mediated by mesons, is called the strong nuclear force, which is now potential nuclear energy.  A minuscule portion of such nuclear energy is liberated by the fission of heavy unstable atoms.


Were it possible to liberate all of the nuclear and protonic energy that is packed in heavy atoms, it would be as if all the gravitational pressure (momentum or kinetic energy) and heat invested in shaping them were suddenly freed back in the form of various kinds of fast particles and energies. The power of such energies, due to their instantaneous liberation (in perhaps less than a femtosecond) and extreme momentum of particles, is also manifested as a shock wave in the presence of an atmosphere.  A kilogram or less of uranium deeply buried could pulverize Earth, due to the explosive power of the plasma resulting from the nearly instantaneous release of heat.   In fact, I posit that the "gamma-ray bursts" are the only example of utter disintegration of engulfed matter by massive black holes at a given critical point. The absolute atomic energy thus liberated and resulting in particle momentum can affect whole galaxies.


The protonic energy (E) embodied in matter is therefore formulated as:


m\fP} --> m+E --> nm' + pE           (see note 1 in addendum)


where \fP is the function of (gravitational) pressure acting on elementary mass to convert it into material mass plus potential energy.  The inverse process is insignificant and even not incontrovertibly validated.  nm' represents the numerous transformed particles liberated from quarks.  Notice how the protonic energy (E) generated by fP becomes photonic energy (pE).  Indeed, photons of all the spectrum are created from most of the liberated protonic energy and PV derivatives.  


Thus, it is hereby postulated that mass (m) is not convertible to energy, and that protonic energy is manifested when the pressure from the creative momentum springs out from protium. The energy immediately attaches to the liberated particles, assuming identities in accordance to their nature.


Mutual "annihilation" is a change of the particles' configuration, with the liberation of specific energies.  When e-p+ pairs escape shattered quarks, they assume multiple random "identities" and "charges," constituting a menagerie of partial "particles."  Electromagnetism is a manifestation of energy invested on electrons with the formation of a magnetic field around them.  I posit that the spin of the charged electrons is responsible for this phenomenon.


The undefined "charge" of electrons and positrons is just their invariable basal energy. Only electrons are suited to convert free energies into electricity and to conduct it along a conductor according to the intensity gradient.


Electromagnetic radiation is a confusing name given to the different types of photons, as a result of Maxwell's deduction that light is a manifestation of electromagnetism. Photons are formed when the vibrations of atomic electrons in a state of low-energy equilibrium are excited by added energy. Outer electrons will emit photons in the radio to UV spectrum, while inner electrons of heavier atoms will emit penetrating photons of the X-ray type. Excited nuclei emit the uppermost penetrating gamma-rays. Photons are therefore extra-atomic entities. Their energies increase with their frequencies, from radio waves to gamma waves ("rays"). Thus, the intensity or "brightness" (an antropomorphical word) of a given type of photon can be increased only by appropriate aggregation, culminating in the laser beam.


I posit that photons are particles that have a yet undetectable mass because they are made of a few spinning PVs from the excited electrons. When they reach target electrons, the delivered energy excites them to incorporate the PVs.   Photons differ from other particles, which also vibrate and move with their characteristic waves, in that they are composed of two halves with inverse spin, which do not annihilate reciprocally.  The halves can be separated, manifesting then a sort of "identical-twin synchronicity."    


The impressive nature of photons is their being "code-bearing" carriers of specific energies.  The effect on their incidental targets varies with the frequency (sharpness) of the photon waves.  In biological cells, "sharp" photons are effectors of apoptosis ("cell suicide") because they initiate proteolytic pathways.  Infrared photons are penetrating, nudging some types of target molecules to vibrate, the interacting momentum of mutual friction being converted to heat.  From extreme UV photons onward, target molecules are ionized, resulting in direct damage to the various components susceptible biological cells.


Should the Universe be considered as an integrated system, photons might have evolved as successful messengers and balancers of energy.  The peculiar characteristics of a very small fast-moving mass and "twin synchronicity" point to such a direction.  


As happens with all variable properties, the intensity of the photons traversing a transparent crystal is subject to limits as far as linearity (non-complexity) of the process is concerned.  At a given high intensity, the photons interact and also react with the crystal, the traversing becoming non-linear and arriving at a Limit of the Second Kind.


In physics, the realm of complexity was intuitively grasped by the mind of Albert Einstein as being (anthropomorphically) "relativistic," in that it is relative to the people observing an event from different vantage points.  Partly based on the concepts published by Lorentz and Shwarzchild, Einstein developed his universally famous formula E=mc2, deducing that c2 was the constant of an equation in which an undefined mass is the only variable. Thus, gravitationally induced pressure and fusion derived heat were not recognized as being the forces responsible for the atomic potential energy.


My concept of "relativity" is different since I consider material mass, in its many molecular configurations, as having critical (and hypercritical) “points” in its reaction to the various energies, while physical properties such as gravitational attraction and velocity, have critical “limits.”  It is the nonlinear (complex) "warped" behavior of matter exposed to these critical limits of gravitational pull and velocity that creates "strange" (not "relativistic") behavior of mass.    


The concept of gravitational body (GB) may assist us in a better understanding of gravity, as follows:

Hydrogen molecules are formed by the gravitationally induced coalescence of hypothetical clouds of elementary particles.  In turn, the resulting hydrogen molecules may coalesce when reaching a critical concentration. Their mutual gravitational attraction then acts centripetally until the density of the resulting spherical body reaches a point that it becomes a GB. This means when a gravitational field has been created around them, whose intensity is then determined by the GB's density.  


Star-creating fusion occurs when the hydrogen-containing GB reaches a critical density, allowing for the self-sustaining process, which is moderated by the resulting helium, which being heavier than hydrogen, remains in place under the gravitational pressure.  The non heat-producing photons created anew also act as moderators by pushing the hydrogen fuel away.  When the pressure of the fuel decreased by consumption to a critical point when it is unable of immobilizing the helium, the unchecked conflagration becomes a cosmological event of successive stages.  Planets are but secondary GBs that are formed by a parallel process, in which various materials from exploding stars serve as the raw components.


The present essay has attempted to contribute toward a better understanding of the Quantum Field Theory by proposing that the spins of e- and p+ in quarks are the source of gravity and derived energy of matter, while the spin of charged electrons creates the electromagnetic field.  A suggested special role of photons may also contribute towards this aim.





1.  The formula offered above applies only to the potential protonic energy (in which just gravitational pressure is involved) may now be complemented as follows:

Once helium is produced by fusion, not only pressure but also heat allows for the further coalescence of nucleons into heavier atoms, now possessing potential nuclear energy. The formula for total atomic potential energy should take into consideration the added material mass, pressure, and heat.


2.  There exists yet an enormous number of "Primal-Particle Clouds" (PPCs) that have not reached the critical point for centripetal coalescence into protium. I posit that they are the not-accounted-for-material that has been wrongly called "dark matter" (actually "dark mass") or "dark energy." These clouds are too tenuous to be detected by present day telescopes, so that they are not dark but rather transparent. PPCs eventually will coalesce into visible hydrogen clouds. Such phenomenon ought to be detectable, as a hydrogen cloud appears where previously there was "empty" space with microlensing properties. 


It is not preposterous to posit that these primal packet clouds of spinning vibrations are the source of attractive and/or repulsive phenomena that have bedeviled physicists since Einstein's time.  If confirmed, the number of "essences" and "dimensions" would be limited to the basic three to four dictated by the "Geometrical Principle."



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