**The
Laws of Space and Observation: An
Unified Theory
**

**Abstract:**
Observational Physics is a new theory which goes back and corrects the
errors that were originally made in special and general relativity, to create a
working unified theory. Observational
Physics is based upon the concepts that the universe is composed of energy of
four different forms, time is constant, distance is relative, Space exists as a
fourth form of energy, and rather than relative states, there are observed
states of which the only true state is that which an object would see itself. To date, this theory has been correct for all macro
calculations and it predicts that all black holes will have a true gravitational
force of 2.0E8 m/^{ }s** ^{2}** at its horizon.
With Observational Physics, gravity can be calculated without a
gravitational constant. It is
anticipated that Observational Physics will also hold true on a quantum level as
it is studied further.

**Keywords:**
Observational physics, energy, space, special relativity, general
relativity, time, law, gravity, black hole, density, mass, density.

**Note:** In
the article below RSD should be equal to the observed distance (d_{obs})
divided by the objective distance (d_{obj}). Also d_{obs}= RSD_{mde}
x RSD_{vel} x d_{obj} where mde stands for “mass deviation
effect”.

**Introduction
**

Observational
Physics is based upon the unique premises that the universe is composed solely
of four forms of energy, time is not relative, Space* exists, distance is a
function of Space density, and that the only accurate state of observation is
that which an object would see itself.^{1}
All other states of observation are relative and in order for an observer
to calculate the true values for an object’s size, mass, gravitational force,
and energy, one must use the relative space density and warp equations which are
explained in detail later.

By
using the Relative Space Warp (RSW) equations, it becomes simple to calculate
the actual gravitational force of any body without having to use the
gravitational constant.^{2} It
is necessary that we no longer think of gravity as a “pulling” force (i.e.
gravity waves) but rather that of a force which results from the displacement of
Space and if anything would be a “pushing” force.
This entity which I have come to call “Space” may actually be what
has been referred to as “background energy,” “vacuum energy,” or
“zero-point field energy (zpf)” in the past.
The characteristics and properties of this “Space” shall be explained
later.

**Proposed
Theory**

The
following are the Laws of Space which delineate out the characteristics and
properties of Space and energy which comprise the whole of the universe:

1.
The Universe* is composed of energy in four different forms:

·
confined energy (matter or packet/quantum energy)

·
free energy (i.e. heat)

·
dense/condensed energy (black hole and primordial/pre-“big bang”
energy)

·
base energy (“Space”)

2.
Energy can neither be created or destroyed, only changed from one form to
another.

3.
There is no such thing as entropy on a universal level.

4.
When Space is displaced, it becomes warped and thereby exerts a force in
the direction of that which is displacing it.

5.
The force of displaced Space is proportional to the density of the energy
displacing it.

6.
The density of Space is relative.

The
theory works quite well on a macro (cosmological) level.
In fact, it works so well that the gravitational force of any mass can be
calculated without using the gravitational constant.
In fact, it also allows us to discover that the gravity of any black hole
at its horizon will always be 2.0 E8 m/s^{2} (see addendum).

The
next step will to see if it can predict and explain the gravitational forces on
a quantum level which are miniscule relative to the other atomic forces.

Additionally,
this theory could explain the 80+% of “dark
matter” that we can not account for. If
Space is composed of energy then it will have mass.
It also should have its greatest density in those areas of high
matter/energy density.

How
can it be validated/proven?

1. On a macro level, it has already been validated.

2.
As the density of Space will be less in areas of less gravity, there
should be less energy in a vacuum here on Earth vs. in space.
Once could easily find the amount of pressure needed to liquefy helium at
a certain temperature on Earth and in space and it should take more pressure to
liquefy helium on Earth (more energy to overcome).

3. Once I have applied the macro calculations on a quantum level, if they
are predictive then the theory shall be validated on all scales.

**Observational
Physics**

1. All objects are at rest relative to themselves.

2. The only "real" or "true" measurements of an object
are those which are done in the same existence state as the object itself.

3. All energy has mass (the ability to displace Space).

4. Time and "true mass" are the only constants between the
observer and the object being observed. “True
mass” is the mass that an object in the same existence state as the mass would
observe.

5. Distance is inversely proportionally to relative velocity and Relative
Space Density (RSD).

**The
Relative Space Density and Warp Equations**

"Relative
Space Density" (RSD) is the density of Space in which an observed object
resides relative to the density of the observer’s Space.
The RSD is calculated by dividing the density of the observer's Space (D_{obs})
by the density of the object's Space (D_{obj}).

Therefore
any object will always see its own relative Space density as being the same (RSD=1)
no matter where it is in the universe. Because
the density of Space may be hard to measure, we can convert our definition of
RSD to distance since D=m/d^{3} and for an object at relative rest where
m_{obs}= m_{obj} and we are only measuring along one axis then
RSD = d_{obj}/d_{obs}.

But
in order to make any sense out of the RSD equations and to validate the theory,
I have created “Observational” physics^{1} which I will try to
briefly outline.

As
shown by Sir Arthur Eddington in 1919 and others since in terms of the Sun,
there is a warpage of Space around a mass which I call the “Relative Space
Warp” (RSW). I have defined this
as being the Angle of Photon Deviation (APD) as measured in degrees and divided
by 360 degrees with a correction for any interference that may be caused by the
gravity of the observer's viewing site which I will call the Angle of
Gravitational Interference (AGI).^{1}
Obviously a more complicated version of this equation may be needed if
there are more than one gravitational forces interfering with the APD, but the
basic concept is the same as shown in figure 3 and expressed in the following
equation.

RSW
= APD/360 - (sin(AGI) x APD/360)

Since
the RSW of an object is proportional to that object's gravity (g), we can say
the following for any two masses y and z.

RSW_{z}**/**RSW_{y}=g_{z}**/**g_{y}

We
can now substitute the sun for object y and solve for g_{z} as follows.

RSW_{z}
/RSW_{sun}= g_{z} /g_{sun}

g_{z}
= g_{sun} /RSW_{sun} x RSW_{z
}

It
is now possible to see that the number represented by g_{sun}/RSW_{sun}
is a constant, which would be the same for any celestial body.
I am using the sun because it is the only celestial body for which I have
the appropriate information. I will
call this number the “Space Constant” (SC) which for now will have an
approximate value of 2.0E8 m/s^{2} as calculated here.

SC
= g_{sun}/RSW_{sun}

SC
= 274 m/s^{2}/((1.75 arcseconds/360degrees) x (1degree/3600arcseconds))

SC
= 274 m/s^{2} / 1.35E-6

SC
= 2.0E8 m/s^{2}

As
more information about other celestial masses becomes available, the numerical
value for the SC will become more accurate.
We can now determine the gravity of any object using the Space Constant
Equation as shown here.

g_{x
}= SC x RSW_{x
}

The
calculation of gravity at any distance from an object can be done by just
measuring the RSW of an object at that distance from its center.
We can further prove the validity of these equations by finding out the
actual APD for such bodies as the Earth and moon which would have a calculated
APD of 0.064 and 0.010 arcseconds respectively.

g_{Earth}=
SC x RSW_{Earth}

RSW_{Earth}=
g_{Earth}/SC

APD_{Earth}/360degrees
= 9.80 m/s^{2}/ 2.0E8 m/s^{2}

APD_{Earth}=
4.9E-8 x 360degrees x (3600arcseconds/1degree)

APD_{Earth}=
0.064 arcseconds

___
___ ___
___

APD_{moon}/360degrees = 1.62 m/s^{2} / 2.0E8 m/s^{2}

APD_{moon}=
8.1E-9 x 360degrees x (3600arcseconds/1degree)

APD_{moon}=
0.010 arcseconds

With
Observational physics like SR, the observer sees the object's size (distance)
decrease as relative velocity or gravity increases but unlike SR, time is
constant for both the observer and the object (no time dilation).
I have created a device which measures true time by the duration that it
takes light to travel a certain distance which will be constant because the
observed speed of light is a constant to an observer in the same existence state
and will always 3E5 km/s which I prefer to call c_{obj}.^{3} If my theories are correct then the “light clock” will
not show any of those “relativistic changes in time” that may be currently
seen with conventional and atomic clocks and it would also explain why there is
an observed difference in the speed of light (c_{obs}) in different
media.

**Summary
of ****Key
Points**

1.
The universe is composed of energy in four different forms.

2.
Space exists as a physical entity with unique properties and
characteristics.

3.
Distance is relative, while time and true mass are not.

4.
What we have called "gravity" is actually the force or pressure
of Space resisting its displacement by matter/energy.

5.
Observational Physics offers a unified view of the universe that
supplants Einstein's previous theories of General and Special Relativity.
The Relative Space Density and Warp Equations have been created to allow
a distant observer to calculate an object's actual size, mass, gravity, and
more.

6.
The Laws of Space postulate the characteristics of Space.

7.
An object's gravity, velocity, mass, radius, density, RSW, RSD, ASW, and
ASD are all mathematically related via Observational physics.^{1}

8.
In Observational physics, what an object experiences is the only true
reality while what the observer in a different existence state, sees only a
distortion of that true reality.

9.
The density of Space is increased when it is being displaced by
matter/energy and/or a relative
increase in velocity. Distance is
inversely proportional to the density of Space.

10. The gravity of any black hole at its horizon will be 2.0E8 m/s^{2}.
The observed radius of a black hole is 938 m times its mass in solar mass
units.

11. The observed speed of light (c_{obs}) is relative while the
objective speed of light (c_{obj }which is approximately 3E5km/s) is
constant in RSD=1 Space (the same existence state as the observer).

12. The only true measure of time will be a light clock which utilizes c_{obj}
over a preset distance as defined in RSD=1 Space.

**Conclusion**

It
is one thing to come up with a grand theory of everything, but it is another to
show that it works. The Laws of Space and Observation have been shown to be valid
on a macro level and now the key is to show that it is valid on the micro
(quantum) level.

I
have described those experiments which could validate the theory further and
hopefully, I shall be able to get others to assist in carrying them out.

*The
capitalization of the words “Space” and “Universe” has been done
intentionally in order to differentiate these specific and unique entities from
their generalized common noun usage. The
term “Space” as being used here is a proper noun defining a specific
physical entity, and “Universe” as being used here is a proper noun defining
our specific universe.

**References**__
__

1.
Siepmann JP, *The
Laws of Space and Observation*, Journal of Theoretics, Vol. 1 No. 1, 1999

2.
Siepmann JP, ** A
New Method of Calculating Gravity without the Gravitational Constant, **Journal of Theoretics, Vol. 1 No. 2, 1999

3.
Siepmann JP, *The
Light Clock: A New Method for Measuring True Time*, Journal of
Theoretics, Vol. 1 No. 1, 1999

**Addendum**

Calculation
of Space Constant (SC):

SC
= g_{sun}/RSW_{sun}

SC
= 274 m/s^{2}/((1.75 arcseconds/360degrees) x (1degree/3600arcseconds))

SC
= 274 m/s^{2} / 1.35E-6

SC
= 2.0E8 m/s^{2}

Using
the Space Constant Equation we can also calculate the gravitational acceleration
at any black hole horizon (bhh) as shown below.

g_{bhh}
= SC x RSW

=
2.0E8 m/s^{2} x 360/360

=
2.0E8 m/s^{2}

Calculation
for a bh radius:

We
can also figure out the observed radius of a bh by using a 1 solar mass bh and
comparing it to the sun, which is also1 solar mass.
Because we know that the RSW is proportional to mass (m) and inversely
proportional to radius (r), we can therefore solve for the observed radius of a
1 solar mass bh.

RSW_{sun}/RSW_{bh}=(m_{sun}/r_{sun})/(m_{bh}/r_{bh})

1.35E-6/1=(1/6.95E8m)
/(1/r_{bh})

r_{bh}=1.35E-6
x 6.95E8m

r_{bh}=
938 m

The
radius of 938 meters would give us a circumference of 5.89 km, which is quite
different, than the 18.55 km obtained from Classic Relativity:

C=
4pSG/c^{2}
= S x 18550 m = S x 18.55 km

C=circ.
of a bh, S= # solar masses, c=2.998E5 km/s, G=1.327E11 km^{3}/s
for 1 solar mass

Also
the density of a bh can be calculated using Observational physics and is found
to be 7.67E20 kg/m^{3}.