(Virtual Particles and Fields of Force)

Author: Calvet C.

Carlos Calvet, Ph.D., Francisco Corbera no. 15; E-08360 Canet de Mar (B); Spain

Abstract: The Background Field Theory (BF-theory) is a figurative approach to describe in a uniform way fields of force, interactions, physical phenomena and elementary particles at quantum level. In this sense, it is assumed that there effectively exists an "absolute void" beneath the "perfect vacuum," so that above the absolute void, there is a background field that consists of virtual gravitons, linked together by means of superstrings, thus building a 3-dimensional matrix.

With the aid of the background field, many physical phenomena in the universe can be explained (i.e., electric and magnetic fields, gravitation, antigravitation, inertia, the fall of the bodies, the speed of light, the uncertainty of space, the "Tunnel Effect," etc.) with all of these phenomena ultimately being due to interactions or mutual actions between elementary particles and the background field. In this sense, inertia represents the inherent resistance of space, and antigravitation is the result of competition between EM and gravitational fields. Because of the background field, the speed of light has a finite value and light is an oscillation instead of being infinitely fast and linear. These vibrations in the background field are responsible for the uncertainty of space.

It is further predicted that there are holes in the background field, where the resistance of space is equal to zero and the velocity of a particle or body can become infinite. Tiny holes in the background field are already known as "Tunnel Effect." Finally, Special Relativity agrees now with the idea of overluminic speed.

Key Words: Antigravitation, EM fields, gravitation, Background Field, speed of light, strings, Tunnel Effect, virtual particles



There are phenomena in the universe that have not yet been satisfactorily explained such as the "absolute void," inertia, the fall of the bodies (with equal speed), antigravitation, why the speed of light is finite, why light is a wave, the momentary reduction of a field of waves, the uncertainty of space (Casimir-like-energy), and the Tunnel Effect. The BF-theory is a figurative quantum model of the space, able to explain such phenomena and to redefine already known ones without infringing any existing physical theory. The ultimate target of the BF-theory is to provide a simple figurative model of the universe and open a new "window" in fields of physics and cosmology.


Our universe consists in principle of the "absolute void." Above the void, there is a field of virtual gravitons, called the "Background Field" that has in principle a 3-dimensional structure. Our universe is therefore a combination of the absolute void, the Background Field (BF) and different particles. What has been called "perfect vacuum" is in this sense, the combination of the void and the BF.

Virtual graviton(s) (VG) in the BF are linked together by means of (super)strings. There are different theoretical possibilities to connect VG and strings. In the most simple case, each VG consists of six string halves, so that each VG is able to couple to six other VG. In this case, each string, half of one VG, is connected to the homologous string half of an adjacent VG, so that two VG are always connected by one complete string, consisting of one half of one VG and one half of an adjacent VG. In this case, the smallest 3-dimensional arrangement of VG in the BF is a cube, with one VG at any vertex so that 4 VG build a cell. In each cell, any VG is linked by means of 6 complete strings to VG of adjacent cells, as above described.

A 3-dimensional arrangement of such cells builds a BF with levels, and each level corresponds to a surface of VG. Each level consists furthermore in a high number of field lines built by rows of VG. Adjacent field lines and levels are linked together by means of strings, so that the resulting structure is 3-dimensional. Furthermore, the BF fills up any hollow space in our universe, even the space between quarks and electron orbits, so that it is "hyperfluid." In the following sections, the principal interactions between fermions and the BF are described.


1. Neutral Interactions

The BF could be eternal in absence of particles, but in our universe, it changes constantly. If a neutral fermion moves, it interacts constantly with VG of the BF. One part of the kinetic energy of the fermion is transferred hereby to any interacting VG on its trajectory. For any interacting VG of the BF, one real graviton (RG) is formed (gravitation wave). In consequence, any moving fermion is loosing constantly kinetic energy.

A punctual fermion interacts always with only one VG at a time. If such a fermion has a kinetic energy Ek, any RG that is produced by interactions would have the potential energy of a VG of the BF, plus a minimal kinetic energy that is necessary to loose the six strings that anchor the VG in the BF:

[1]           E(RG) = E(VG) + Ekmin

Where E(RG): Potential energy of a produced RG

E(VG): Potential energy of an interacting VG

Ekmin: Minimal kinetic energy of a fermion, necessary to loose the 6 strings that anchor a VG in the BF

This minimal kinetic energy is therefore equivalent to the potential energy of 6 strings (since to loose 2 string halves, we must apply the potential energy of 1 string):

[2]              Ekmin = 6 E(S)

Where E(S):  Potential energy of a string

In order to overcome the force of the 6 strings that anchor a VG in the BF, according to [1], it is necessary to apply a minimal force. This force corresponds to the inertia of a punctual particle since it represents the smallest possible resistance of the space:

[3]       Fi = 6 E(S)/l = Ekmin/l

Where Fi:  Inertia of a punctual fermion

  l:  Minimal length, a minimum force must be applied, in order to loose the 6 strings of a VG

The minimal length "l" probably corresponds to Planck's Elementary Length since the length of a VG string is probably the smallest length that can exist. The constant interactions with VG withdraw a punctual fermion kinetic energy, so that its kinetic energy becomes always less. With each interaction, according to [2], a particle looses the potential energy of 6 strings:

[4]         E'k = Ek - 6 E(S) = Ek - Ekmin

Where E'k:  Kinetic energy of a punctual fermion after a neutral interaction

 Ek:  Kinetic energy of a punctual fermion before a neutral interaction

A neutral fermion is therefore constantly decelerated by the inherent resistance of the BF. Furthermore, there is a minimum velocity at which a neutral fermion can move through the BF. To achieve this minimum velocity from the "absolute rest," it is necessary to apply a minimum force in order to overcome the resistance of the BF. This force is again the inertial force. A particle can move through the space, only if it is accelerated to the above mentioned minimum velocity.

Supposing a punctual fermion is in a certain instant overcoming inertia from the absolute rest, it will achieve a minimum velocity, interacting each time, in a minimum time, with 1 VG at a length, equal to Planck's Elementary Length:

[5]           Fi = m vmin/tmin = 6 E(S)/l

Where Fi:  Inertia of a fermion

  m:  Mass of a fermion

  vmin:  Absolute minimum velocity that a fermion can reach in the BF

  tmin:  Minimum time, necessary to loose the 6 strings of one VG in the BF

  l:  Planck's Elementary Length

Each time a VG from the BF interacts and produces a RG, the BF changes (it contracts due to the expulsion of 1 RG out of the matrix of the BF). When a fermion crosses the space, the global contraction of the BF is proportional to the total amount of interactions with VG of the BF. As a result, in our universe, space is constantly contracting and a constant momentary reduction of the BF takes place. Since in the space, there is an almost unlimited number of VG, the BF is reorganized constantly by the surrounding VGs. To do this, the free ends of the string halves of those VG, adjacent to the VGs that were converted into RG and left the BF, do connect each other thus producing again an intact, although contracted, BF.


2. Electromagnetic Interaction

According to convention, the field lines of a positive charge are directed outwards (out from the charge), while the field lines of a negative charge are directed inwards (into the charge). This can be explained by a positive charge constantly interacting with VG of the BF, exciting and converting them into virtual photon(s) (VP) that are radiated in every direction. This radiation produces field lines that are directed outwards and are linked together by means of strings as in the BF.

On the contrary, a negative charge interacts with VP from surrounding EM fields and converts them into VG that can be incorporated again to the BF. The direction of the field lines of an electric field is equivalent to the flow direction of the VP in the field. Therefore, the field lines of a negative charge are directed towards the charge.

A positive charge interacts with VG of the BF, thus producing VP that build an electric field. The stronger the positive charge, the more energy the produced VP have and the stronger the resulting electric field is:

[6]            E(VP) ~ q(+) E(VG)

Where E(VP):  Potential energy of a produced VP

  q(+):  Positive charge of an interacting particle

  E(VG):  Potential energy of an interacting VG

For this reason, the charge of a particle and the strength of its electric field are two different phenomena. Without the BF, positive charges would not be able to build electric fields. They would be potentially positive, but effectively neutral, since they could not interact with VG and produce VP of the corresponding electric field.

On the contrary, a negative charge interacts with VP from surrounding EM fields, thus absorbing their potential energy and converting them into VG that can become again part of the BF or interact with surrounding positive charges. Analogous to [6], the potential energy of a produced VG is here indirectly proportional to the negative charge of an interacting particle:

[7]               E(VG) ~ E(VP) / q(-)

Where E(VG):  Potential energy of a produced VG

  E(VP):  Potential energy of an interacting VP

  q(-):  Negative charge of an interacting particle

In summary, the total field strength of an electric field is directly proportional to the number of VP that build the field and to their individual potential energy:

[8]             Fe ~ n E(VP)

Where Fe:  Electric field strength

  n: Number of VP that build the electric field

  E(VP):  Potential energy of a VP in the electric field

A charge can build an electric field, only if the space is full of virtual particles. In our universe, VP emitted by positive charges can interact with negative charges and be converted again into VG of the BF. Therefore, our universe is a great electromagnetic circuit in balance.

Since the EM force is known to be approximately 1041 times stronger than gravitation, a VP must therefore have approximately 1041 times more potential energy than a VG in a gravitational field:

[9]                E(VP) = 1041 E(VG)

Where E(VP):  Potential energy of a VP

 E(VG):  Potential energy of a VG

This means that the potential energy (tension) of a string in an EM field is approximately 1041 times higher than that of a string in a gravitational field (see section 3 below). For this reason, in EM-interactions, VG are not converted into real photons in concordance with the case of neutral interactions, where VG are converted into RG. To produce a real photon, it would take approximately 1041 times more energy than in a neutral interaction. Therefore, EM-interactions produce only VP or convert them back into VG. These and other considerations will be treated furthermore in a future 2nd part of the article, "Elementary Particles."

Decisive for the spinning direction of an electric field is furthermore the direction in which the VP of the field are moving (and not that of the VG). Now electric attraction and repulsion will be discussed.

Two equal charges repel mutually because of the tension of the strings between the VP of the two fields. Two positive charges repel mutually because each positive charge radiates VP. Since VP are linked together in an EM field by means of strings, and these are very strong according to [9], VP cannot change from one field line to another. Therefore, if we try to approach two positive charges, the strings that maintain the VP linked together in each field produce a tension that tends to separate again both charges. This mutual repulsion is furthermore maintained by the VP, both positive charges are constantly emitting.

According to [6], the stronger the charges, the more potential energy the produced VP and the corresponding strings have. The result is that the repulsion between two positive charges increases with their charge.

On the contrary, two negative charges repel each other because each charge interacts with VP from surrounding EM fields and converts them into VG. There is a constant flow of rows of VP towards each charge that build two neatly defined fields since VP cannot change from one field to another. In addition, there is a constant competition for VP between two negative charges that produces a tension between both fields and repels them mutually.

Any electric repulsion or attraction is therefore proportional to the total tension (e.g. potential energy) of all the strings in the corresponding electric fields. Since every VP is linked to the corresponding electric field by means of 6 strings:

[10]                 Fq ~ 6 n E(S)

Where Fq:  Attraction or repulsion force of two electric charges

 n:  Total number of VP in both fields

 E(S):  Mean potential energy of a string in both fields

Two unequal charges attract each other because the positive charge produces VP that can interact directly with the negative charge. In this sense, two unequal charges support each other and a flow of VP from the positive to the negative charge takes place. There is also a flow of VG from the negative to the positive charge that is probably only partial, since a part of the VG might return to the BF due to their extreme volatility.

Remembering that there is a flow of VP from the positive to the negative charge, if we try to separate two unequal charges from one another, the strings in the combined electric field become tensed and a resistance appears since we are working in the opposite direction to the movement of VP in the field. On the contrary, if we approach two unequal charges, we work in the direction of the VP in the field, so that no tension appears. Since the tension of the strings increases if we separate two unequal charges one another and it decreases in the opposite direction, two unequal charges always tend to attract each other.

According to the above model, in a neutral atom, there is a closed circuit of VP between protons and electrons. Protons absorb VG from the BF and produce VP that interact with electrons and are again converted into VG.

A positive ion has an excess of protons that produces an excess of VP that leaves the atom along field lines. On the contrary, in a negative ion, the excess of electrons interact with surrounding VP and a negative electric field appears by means of field lines of VP that enter into the atom.

In consequence, an atom is electrically neutral if there is no interchange of VP with the surrounding space. Without the BF, any positive charge or ion would be electrically neutral since there would be no VG to interact with and no VP could therefore be emitted. Negative charges would also be electrically neutral in this case, since there would be no VP to interact with.


3. Gravitation

The BF is no gravitational field by itself. Gravitation happens only if there are fermions with certain kinetic energy inside the space. Since in our universe, every particle is in a constant movement together with all the existing galaxies and other celestial formations, fermions are therefore constantly interacting with VG of the BF. A part of the kinetic energy of fermions is transferred to VG, and according to [1], RG are produced in form of gravitation waves.

For each interacting VG that leaves the BF as a RG, there is a momentary reduction of the BF, and the BF consequently contracts. A second particle close to an interacting particle is pushed consequently closer to the latter. Therefore, it seems to exist a force that tends to attract both particles mutually, but in effect, it is the BF that has contracted between both particles, thus producing the "illusion" of a gravitational attraction. In consequence, a constant momentary reduction of the BF due to the presence of moving fermions is what we call the "gravitational field."

A momentary reduction of the BF is able to approach two fermions mutually, since both are constantly interacting with VG of the BF and are therefore constantly anchored to it. This is because neutral interactions loose the strings that maintain VG linked in the BF. In order to loose a string, it is necessary that a fermion connects physically to a VG, and in this state, it is anchored to the BF and can be moved by momentary reductions. Furthermore, any fermion is very large with regard to VG, so that it always interacts with several VG at the same time and never stops to interact.

The faster a fermion is, the more interactions with VG happen and the more the BF contracts. In consequence, faster particles have a higher "gravitational attraction" than slower particles. In consequence, the gravitational attraction of a particle could be very small or zero if it did not move with respect to the BF.

Finally, gravitational attraction is always directed towards the center of a body since VG are linked together by means of strings, thus building field lines of the gravitational field that end in the center of the corresponding body since every single particle of a body necessarily interacts with the BF. The radial disposition of field lines towards the center of a body is the less energetic state of such a field.


4. Magnetism

The flow of VP in a usual magnetic field is different to that of an electric field since there are no magnetic monopoles. The smallest possible magnet is the atom or a molecule. As we know, the field lines of a magnet run inside the magnet, from the north pole to the south pole, and outside of the magnet, from the south pole to the north pole (according to the BF-theory, there is a flow of VP in exactly these directions). An internal cyclic current1 transfers energy to the VG of the BF, which are in this way converted into VP of the resulting magnetic field. Analogous to electric fields, a magnetic field is a "closed field" because of the high energy of VP [9] that make rotate the field, opposite to "open fields" like the BF and the gravitational field, where VG are not that energetic.

Since VP are linked also in EM fields by means of strings, they cannot move from one field line to another. In this sense, if we approach two equal magnetic poles, the field lines cannot interchange VP, so that a pressure on each field line appears and the strings between the VP of the fields become tensed. This tension is proportional to the repulsion force between two equal poles. The more we approach two equal poles, the smaller becomes the distance between two adjacent field lines and the higher the tension of the corresponding strings is. The result is that equal poles tend to repulse each other and this repulsion is proportional to the distance between both poles, e.g. between two adjacent field lines.

If we approach two unequal poles, the VP that come out of the south pole of one magnet enter without any impediment into the north pole of the other magnet. To do so, it is not necessary that VP change from one field line to another. The density of field lines between two opposite poles simply doubles and a unique circuit of VP appears. Since the combined magnetic field consists now of twice as much field lines (and VP) as in one single magnet, the magnetic force of the combined magnet is also approx. twice as high as that of one individual magnet.

In magnets, we see that without the BF, internal currents would not be able to produce VP since there would be no VG to interact with. In this case, there would be no magnets at all, as well as no positive charges or ions. In addition, there would also be no negative charges or ions since the VP with which they interact would have never been produced. In conclusion, without the BF, there would be no EM fields at all.

From the above considerations, it is evident that electric charges directly produce electric fields, and indirectly magnetic fields. Therefore, we can call electric fields "primary EM fields," while magnetic fields would be "secondary EM fields." In a stronger EM field (primary field) strings would have a higher tension than in a weaker (secondary) field.



The central idea of the BF-theory is that there is a BF of VG above the "absolute void." VG are known to have "negative energy" and can therefore absorb energy easily. In the BF (and in any other field) virtual bosons are linked together by strings. Strings have been used in String Theories to explain the emission and absorption of bosons. In a complementary way, the BF-theory is able to explain it figuratively by means of strings and virtual particles fields of force (see Results) and other physical phenomena (see beyond). Therefore, the idea that virtual bosons are linked together by strings in fields of force is realistic. The BF-theory has in addition the great advantage that energy and particles do no longer appear from "nothing"; they are the result of interactions of the BF. Furthermore, space is a quantified magnitude in this model, with certain predictable properties.

We are not able to "see" the BF directly because we are submerged in it. This case is similar to a diver who is not able to see the surrounding water or a man who is not be able to see the surrounding air. But on land, we are able to see water drops on our hand and if we abandon the earth, we are also able to see the atmosphere. This is not possible if we do not leave the medium in which we are submerged because of the lack of contrast. But once we have abandoned our medium, we can see it because of the greater contrast with other media. The same happens with the BF since it is the medium in which we are all submerged, we cannot "see" it because any physical activity is due to the presence of this medium and would not take place without it, e.g. the surrounding nature would not be the same without the BF and we are not able to imagine our world without it. In order to "see" the BF field, we might try increasing the contrast, e.g. "step out" of the BF (see chapter 6 below).

An analogous happening occurs with virtual bosons. Virtual bosons are linked together by means of strings, thus building part of a medium (field) we cannot see. But if a virtual boson abandons the medium (i.e. as a free photon), we are immediately able to detect it by means of technology (radio waves) or our eyes (light), since the contrast between the particle and the background has now increased. Consequently, in our universe, there are at least 4 different "fluid" media (from a more to less density): liquids, gases, the "perfect vacuum" (BF), and the "absolute void" (see chapter 6 below).

Additionally the possibility of quantifying fields of force, the BF-theory is also able to predict physical phenomena that have been recently described in the literature or cannot be satisfactorily explained by other means.


1. Inertia

Inertia is the resistance of the BF that limits the freedom of movement of any material particle. This resistance is due to the interaction between the VG of the BF and fermions. Each fermion has a certain kinetic energy, and part of this energy is transferred by means of interactions to the VG of the BF. Neutral interactions produce RG (gravitation waves), while EM-interactions of positive particles produce VP (EM fields). As a result, it is necessary to apply a force in order to move a particle through the BF from absolute rest. This force is called "inertia" and is due to the potential energy of the strings that link VG together in the BF ([3], [5]). For each interacting VG, a fermion must loose 6 strings in order to emit a RG. The potential energy of these strings corresponds to the inertia of a moving particle or body.


2. The Fall of Bodies

All bodies falls to earth always with the same velocity, independently from its mass, supposing that there is no resistance of the air. Since the field lines of the gravitational field are directed vertically towards the center of the earth (see also chapter 3 in Results), every fermion in a body moves during a free fall along these field lines. Each field line consists of numerous VG that are linked together by strings. For this reason, any fermion must interact with a certain amount of VG on each field line in order to fall to earth. It does not matter how many fermions a body has, since any fermion must realize these interactions independently from the other particles of the body since any particle is located on an individual field line (or group of field lines). As a result, each fermion falls at the same time to earth, independent of which body it is momentarily located. This furthermore means that each body falls at the same time to earth, independent of how many fermions it is made of.

We can demonstrate that fermions fall independently each other in a body and with the same speed, because any piece of matter falls with the same velocity to earth without rotating. If some particles of a certain body would fall faster to earth than others, certain pieces of matter would rotate while falling down, since one side of the corresponding body would tend to fall faster than the other side. Since this is not the case, we must suppose that any particle falls with the same speed. Since smaller bodies fall with the same speed as larger bodies which are made of more fermions, we can conclude that the number of fermions does not affect the free fall, e.g. fermions fall each other independently to earth.


3. Antigravitation

In addition to an electric field, charges also have a gravitational field due to their mass. Positive charges interact with VG of the BF. Therefore VG are used to build up the gravitational and electric fields of positive charges. In consequence, there is a competition between both fields for VG, so that the stronger field (electric field) weakens the weaker field (gravitational field). The gravitational field does no longer dispose of 100 % of the VG of the BF to be built up, with the result that it becomes weaker.

Since any VP in an EM field signifies a VG less in the corresponding gravitational field, the decrease of gravity for a body is proportional to the amount of positive charges of the body that determine how many VG are converted into VP of the corresponding electric fields:

[11]                  (-)FG ~ n q(+)

Where (-)FG: Decrease of gravity of a body

  n: Number of positive charges in the body

  q(+): Load of a positive charge in the body

This type of antigravitation (EM reduction of gravity) happens only through positive charges and can theoretically reach a value from 0 - 100 % according to how many VG of the BF positive charges interact with.

Negative charges, on the contrary, emit VG so that in this case there would be no deficit of VG that could produce antigravitation. In any way, VG produced by negative particles are very volatile and cannot always interact with nearby positive particles (i.e. in an atom), so that they escape partially to the BF without interacting. This always produces a slight deficit of VG close to negative particles and thus there is always a slight local reduction of gravity. In this sense, also negative particles would participate in antigravity, although not directly.

Antigravitation was found accidentally in an experiment with a turning superconductor that was suspended by solenoids.2 In agreement with the experiment, antigravitation cannot be suddenly be switched on and off. It reaches a theoretical value up to a certain percentage. In the experiment, it was up to 2.1 %. This could be interpreted as if approximately 2.1 % of the VG of the BF had been converted into VP of the EM field, whereby the gravity had decreased in exactly this proportion.

The supposition that VP in EM fields must not necessarily be very abundant with respect to VG in a gravitational field, is supported by the considerations in chapter 4 of Results. If we approach two unequal poles, the field lines of both magnets combine to one unique field. This is an indication that these field lines are not so abundant as in the BF. Otherwise such type of an addition would probably not be possible because of the lack of space between two adjacent field lines (in the BF, this space is probably close to Planck's elementary length). Therefore, the supposition that its about 2.1 % of the total virtual bosons, is probably a realistic idea.


4. The Speed of Light

It is still unknown, why the speed of light has a finite value and light is an oscillation in stead of being infinite and linear. In the BF-theory since light quanta are the free counterpart of VP in EM fields, they consist of 6 string halves with an energy that according to [9] is approximately 1041 higher than that of a graviton. In addition, light quanta cannot interact with VP nor with VG since they only transmit forces. (Any interaction between a photon and a VG will therefore always produce a photon and a VG, and any interaction between a photon and a VP will always produce a photon and a VP. Neither the BF nor EM fields would be altered in the end by such "virtual" interactions).

Since light tends to move "straight" through space and space is full of EM fields and the BF, photons must necessarily oscillate around VG and VP since they cannot effectively interact with them. The higher the energy of a photon, the smaller the corresponding oscillation (i.e. negative particle) and the lower the energy of a photon (i.e. radio waves), the larger its oscillation. The logical result is an undulatory movement with a limited velocity.

Without the BF, light would not be undulatory but linear and the speed of light would not be limited. The speed of light would be practically infinite because there would be no virtual bosons (VG, VP) that would make photons oscillate around them (see also chapter 6 below).

5. The Uncertainty of Space

Due to the numerous momentary reductions of the BF after neutral interactions that signify a constant reorganization of the BF (see chapter 3 in Results), any interacting fermion transmits a certain kinetic energy to the whole BF. This kinetic energy is absorbed by the strings of the VG in the BF, so that the whole BF is constantly vibrating due to this effect (like a spider's web that absorbs the kinetic energy of rain drops and of the wind). These vibrations could furthermore be the reason for the uncertainty of space that causes us to be unable to clearly determine in a certain moment, where a certain VG of the BF is effectively located.

This uncertainty is furthermore probably the reason for the so-called "Casimir-like-energy." Since the number of interactions of the BF with fermions in our universe is practically infinite, the BF effectively contains a practically infinite amount of energy (vibrations) we should be able to use.


6. Holes in the Background Field

In [3], the resistance of the space is indicated as inertia. Since this resistance is based exclusively on the presence of VG in the BF, it is easy to imagine that if there was no BF, the resistance of the space would be equal to zero. In a space without resistance, fermions would no longer interact with any virtual boson and there would consequently be nothing that could stop their movement (except other real particles eventually). The result would be that the velocity of any real particle or body would become infinite with the time, since the time necessary to pass through such an empty space would tend to be zero.

In such a space, light would have no longer to oscillate around any virtual boson, since there would be no virtual boson at all. In consequence, light would be no longer be a wave but linear and its speed would become infinite. There would further be no difference between bosons and fermions, since they would be in fact not even present (if we tried to find a particle, we would need an infinite amount of time). Particles would then cross this space with an infinite velocity so that a portion of such empty space would look like a "hole in our universe."

Such holes could effectively exist near singularities or other very energetic regions of our universe. In this case, the "absolute void" would emerge through a hole in the space and we would immediately recognize the BF due to the increase in its contrast with the hole. Since the absolute void has size but no resistance with respect to moving particles, such holes could be crossed by photons and fermions in a time almost equal to zero (at the border regions of such holes, a particle would probably first accelerate before its velocity tended to be infinite).

A hole in the BF would also mean a complete interruption of fields of force, since virtual bosons in fields of force are linked together by strings. The considerable tension between these strings would probably avoid that part of the field of force which "evaporates" in the absolute void of the hole. On the other hand, fermions and free bosons (i.e. light particles) could pass through such holes easily because they are not linked to any field by means of strings.

In consequence, if astronomers detect certain galaxies or celestial formations that do not influence each other mutually according to the known laws of physics, this could mean that there is a hole in the BF between these formations. In such a case, the mutual attraction, as well as any electric and magnetic field, would be interrupted by the hole.

Holes in the BF could probably best be found at the borders of the universe or in its geometrical center since these are probably the most energetic regions that can exist according to the Big Bang Theory. In consequence, between us and the "other side" of the universe (e.g. on the other side of the center of the Big Bang) there could be a hole in the BF. We may be able to see the light from the other side of the Big Bang, but the information of those light waves would probably be a bit "fuzzy" because of their path through such a singular hole.


7. The "Tunnel Effect"

The Tunnel Effect is by definition the propagation of EM waves with overluminic velocity (faster than light speed) and has been experimentally described.3 In this sense, this phenomenon is probably a small variant of the above described holes in the BF since both phenomena have the same effect (overluminic velocity). In consequence, it is logical to assume that both phenomena do also have the same cause (holes in the BF). Therefore small holes in the BF would probably be easy to produce in hollow conductors, either because a concentrated beam of EM waves makes field lines of the BF move away each other or because the BF is weakened due to the existence of some EM field (see also 3 in Discussion above).

If the Tunnel Effect is a tiny hole in the BF, in this hole, resistance is equal to zero, and photons can trespass the hole without any disturbance, so that their speed is accelerated beyond the speed of light. Of course, such artificial tiny holes in the BF are probably not perfect, so that there will always be a certain resistance. Therefore, particles will probably need a certain time to accelerate from their ground speed to overluminic speed. For this reason, in such a small space, we cannot expect very high velocities, and in effect, a typical value that has been measured here is 2c or 1.7c.3,4



To the best of my knowledge, the BF-theory is the first figurative model that combines both EM and gravitational fields in one single concept. In addition, the BF-theory is able to explain in a figurative way the fields of force and inertia as well as predicting phenomena like antigravity, the tunnel effect, and larger spaces without resistance. I therefore think that this theory is quite realistic and we should try to develop the predicted phenomena and possibilities.

It cannot be foreseen, what possibilities may exist if we can learn to produce and control holes in the BF. A practical application could be instant teleportation of material bodies. Through holes in the BF, we could also receive signals from remote civilizations and send them our own signals. We would dispose in this case of the possibility to communicate, even without any physical contact, and in this context information has already been tunneled without being destroyed.3

In (Calvet), further practical applications of the BF-theory are discussed, such as the possibility of intergalactic voyages with the aid of field and gyroscopic propulsions.5 Another possibility is the transmutation of elementary particles (will be discussed in the future 2nd part of this theory: "Elementary Particles").

Since any momentary reduction of the BF signifies that the BF is absorbing energy and that it is vibrating, it should be possible for us to use these vibrations (Casimir-like-Energy) so that we could dispose of a practically unlimited amount of cheap energy due to the practically unlimited number of interactions between fermions and the BF in our universe.

Finally, the BF-theory agrees with the possibility of overluminic velocity with Special Relativity, since without the BF, the resistance of the space is equal to zero and the mass of a body can no longer increase. The only factor that can cause an increase the mass of a body (e.g. its inherent potential energy) are interactions with VG. Since a hole in the BF, there are no VG or any other particle to interact with, the mass of a body cannot increase in any way whatsoever since absolutely no interaction can take place.



I wished to thank all those people (like my wife Maria) that have supported me during all these years my experiments of thought, which has gradually led to the BF-theory. I hope this that theory will be very useful to mankind and that we may learn with its aid more about the real nature of our universe.



1. DeCurtis S, Fernández Ferrer J, "Physik," Neuer Kaiser Verlag, 1998, 95 pp. (in German)

2. Podkletnov EE, (Moscow Chem. Scientific. Ctr.), "Weak Gravitation Shielding Properties of Composite Bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x Superconductor Below 70°K under E.M. Field," Univ. Cincinnati Engineering, report # MSU-chem 95, abstract cond-mat/9701074, 1997; 19 pp., in: NEN (New Energy News), Vol. 4, No. 12, April 1997, p. 7-26

3. Nimtz G, "Instantanes Tunneln - Tunnelexperimente mit elektromagnetischen Wellen"" Phys. Bl. 49, 1993, p. 1119-1120 (in German)

4. Steinberg AM, Kwiat PG, Chiao RY, "Measurement of the Single-Photon Tunneling Time," Physical Review Letter 71, 1997 p. 708-711.

5. Calvet, Carlos, Ph.D., "Ausserirdische Technologie", Bohmeier Verlag Lübeck, (to be published in year 2000), 111 pp. (in German)

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