article outlines various studies which have shown a change in the measured gamma radiation
near bioenergy healers. Contained herein is a theoretical explanation for these
findings based upon an expansion of current concepts in physics and biology.
Keywords: gamma radiaton, radiation detection, bioenergy,
quantum vacuum, atomic spin, phyton, SQUID, electromagnetic field.
Certain alternative healing therapies are theorized as being bioenergetic
modalities which utilize the "Úlan vital" or vital energy. Proponents of these
techniques have claimed this previously unrecognized force infuses organisms with life
sustaining energies and/or balances existing energies resulting in improved health. This
long-standing and widespread belief in the existence of an etheric healing force, called
"prana" by the Hindus, "chi" by the Chinese, and "ki" by the
Japanese, is the source most often associated with the "soul, spirit, and mind."
In fact, there are references made to human energy fields or the aura of the body in 97
different cultures, according to John White in his book "Future Science."1
Equally mystifying and unexplainable are the plethora of parapsychological
phenomena often referred to as extrasensory perception, precognition, remote viewing, etc.
that have evaded scientific description. Modern scientists have repeatedly sought evidence
for the substance of spirit. After Newton published his laws of mechanics, optics, and
gravity, he spent many years looking for the living force via the use of alchemy. In the
late nineteenth century, prominent physicists, William Crookes and Oliver Lodge, searched
for what they called the "psychic force." Their premise was that a connection
existed between the spiritual, aetheric forces and the recently discovered electromagnetic
waves. By 1905, electromagnetic signals were recognized as being carried by light packets,
or photons, but were not scientifically connected to healing energies.2
Numerous other scientists have also searched for and attempted to name
this elusive aether. An abbreviated list would include
"pseudo magnetism"; "fifth force"; "empty waves"; a
significant part of Tesla phenomenology; "radiation energy" by H. Moray;
"tachyon fields" by Fienberg; "free energy" by Kelly; Niepers
"gravitation field energy"; "space energy" by Schaffranke and Harris;
"unified field" by Mahareshi-Jagelin; "emptiness energy" by
Reichenbach; "vital magnetism" by Messmer; "bio-cosmic energy" by
Hieronymus; "Mumia" by Paracelsus; "X-force" by Eemen;
"N-radiation" by Biondio; "ponderomatoric forces" by Myshin;
"radiation energy" by Abrams; "O-radiation or Orgonne" by Reich;
"M-field" (morphogenic field) by Schaldrein and B. Haeim. A common physical
reality behind the diverse phenomenology was postulated by many researchers, in
particular, in a more complete form be D.A. Kelly in 1986 and Antwort Schema in 1989.3
Throughout the 20th Century, proponents of "Úlan vital" and
bioenergy medicine have been unable to provide definitive evidence of an electromagnetic
connection between alternative healing therapies and living organisms let alone offer a
scientifically-testable theory of its existence. This has left the field open to staunch
criticism from medical professionals and scientists who overtly dismiss any possible
healing effects from an "imaginery" aether. However, recent research may
document the existence of healing energy and, further, describe a new paradigm for
bioenergy healing which includes a plausible mechanism of action.
II. Bioenergy Healers and Gamma Radiation
Recently replicated studies by Benford et al. identified
statistically significant decreases in extremely high-frequency electromagnetic fields,
termed gamma rays, during alternative healing sessions with a trained practitioner and
multiple subjects.4 During these experiments, external gamma radiation counts
were recorded to obtain: (1) background control values, (2) resting control values
(subjects in supine position), (3) no treatment baseline control values (with a person
standing along side the subjects), and (4) treatment values (with therapist's hands gently
placed on the subjects). During the initial preliminary tests, total counts were recorded
in 100-second trials separately over the crown, heart, abdomen and pelvic regions using a
NaI(TI) crystal scintillator that detected gamma radiation from approximately 100 KeV to 3
MeV. Later tests involved 300-second counts over the heart, abdomen, right lateral side of
Early results demonstrated that gamma radiation levels markedly decreased
during therapy sessions of 100% of subjects and at every body site tested regardless of
which therapist performed the treatment. In many instances, the gamma counts fluctuated by
thousands which represented a 3 6% difference in gross gamma count between the
untrained control practitioners and trained healing energy practitioners within the short
time periods analyzed. T-tests were used to determine that there was a significant
statistical significance with p-values between 0.035 and <0.0001 in the 100-second
trials, and p-values less than 0.0001 in the 300-second trials.
Later tests, whereby the therapists and controls were moved three feet
away from the detector and seated at the subjects head, demonstrated that
significant drops occurred in female subjects interacting with trained therapists but not
in males. In fact, two males demonstrated "emissions" of gamma rays during the
therapy sessions. This may be due, in part, to variations in lean body mass which contains
the bodys primary gamma emitter, Potassium-40 (K40). This has also been hypothesized
to represent a "self-regulation" of energy within the body and the surrounding
The consistent results from these controlled experiments may result, in
part, from the increased electromagnetic fields surrounding the hands of healers. Dr. John
Zimmerman discovered large frequency-pulsing biomagnetic fields emanating from hands of
therapeutic touch practitioners during therapy as measured by an extremely sensitive
magnetometer called a SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device).6 Similar
frequency-pulsing biomagnetic fields were later measured and quantified from the hands of
meditators and practitioners of yoga and QiGong using a simple magnetometer. These fields
were 1000 times greater than the strongest human biomagnetic field7 and were
found to be in the same frequency range as those being tested in medical research
laboratories for use in speeding the healing process of certain biological tissues.3,8
This range is low energy and extremely low frequency and spans from 2 Hz to 50 Hz.8
However, still missing from this research is a mechanism of action that can explain the
connection between electromagnetic field increases and observed healing benefits reported
in the current therapy literature.
III. Adding "spin" to the healing equation.
Recently released Russian research posits an approach for describing many,
if not all, the biopositive and parapsychological phenomena related to bioenergy healing
and conscious intention. This research has postulated and tested the existence of
"torsion fields." Russian scientist Akimov and his team consider the quantum
vacuum as a universal torsion wave carrying medium. The torsion field is said to fill all
of space isotropically, including its matter component. It has a quantal structure that is
unobservable in non-disturbed states. However, violations of vacuum symmetry and
invariance create different, and in principle observable, states. These theorized
"violations" and "invariances" may be what the energy practitioners
are creating, which induces changes in the gamma radiation previously described.
The torsion field theory takes a modified form of the original
electron-positron model of the Dirac sea: the vacuum's energy field is viewed as a system
of rotating wave packets of electrons and positrons (rather than a sea of
electron-positron pairs). Where the wave packets are mutually embedded, the field is
electrically neutral. If the spins of the embedded packets have the opposite sign, the
system is compensated not only in charge, but also in classical spin and magnetic moment.
"The concept of quantums as electron-positron pairs was used by M. Broido
independently of G. Bjorken. Simultaneously, Ya. Zeldovich demonstrated that presence of
an electromagnetic field in Vacuum* (quantum vacuum) results in generation of
electron-positron pairs, thus producing non-zero vacuum energy regarded as field energy.
The relation between electromagnetism and Vacuum fluctuation was also noted by L.
Rivlin."3 Such a system is said to create a "phyton" of which a
dense ensemble of phytons are said to approximate a simplified model of the Vacuum field.
When the phytons are spin-compensated, their orientation within the
ensemble is arbitrary. But when a charge q is the source of disturbance, the action
produces a charge polarization of the Vacuum, as prescribed by quantum electrodynamics.
When a mass m is the source of disturbance, the phytons produce symmetrical
oscillations along the axis given by the direction of the disturbance. The Vacuum then
enters a state characterized by the oscillation of the phytons along their longitudinal
spin-polarization; this is interpreted as a gravitational field (G- field). The
gravitational field is thus the result of Vacuum decompensation arising at its point of
polarization, which is an idea that was originally introduced by the well-known Russian
Akimov et al.3 go further by following a thesis advanced
by physicist Roger Penrose,9 that phytons represent the Vacuum equations in the
spinor form and thereby obtain a system of nonlinear spinor equations where two component
spinors represent the potential of torsion fields. These equations can describe charged as
well as neutral quantum and classical particles. They thus allow that the Vacuum field is
disturbed not only by charge and mass, but also by classical spin. In that event the
phytons oriented in the same direction as the spin of the disturbance keep their
orientation. Those opposite to the spin of the source undergo inversion; then the local
region of the Vacuum transits into a state of transverse spin polarization. This gives the
"spin field" (S- field), viewed as a condensate of Fermion pairs.
The dynamic interaction of positive and negative particles, with their
resident charge, mass and spin characteristics, defines matter as we see it as well as the
underlying forces. Intentional distortion of the zero-point field (ZPF), or Vacuum,
subsequently modifies these parameters. If the substance is unbalanced and in a state of
disequilibrium, then the bioenergy of the healer's interaction with the ZPF will serve to
balance the energy scales and return the substance to equilibrium.
In keeping with this theory, Akimov et al.3 view the
Vacuum as a physical medium that can assume various polarization states. Given charge
polarization, the Vacuum is manifested as the electromagnetic field. Given matter
polarization, it is manifested as the gravitational field. And given spin polarization,
the Vacuum manifests as a spin field. All fundamental fields known to physics correspond
to specific Vacuum polarization states.
IV. Characteristics of the torsion field
G.I. Shipov showed that besides the two known long-range physical fields,
electromagnetic and gravitational, there exists a third long-range field: the torsion
field. The torsion field is an extremely unusual entity. First of all, the theoretical
upper limit for the speed of torsion waves is estimated to be not less than 109
c, where c is the speed of light in a Vacuum. Second, torsion fields may be
able to propagate in a region of space which is not limited by the light cone. That means
that torsion fields are able to propagate not only in the future but in the past as well.
Third, torsion fields may transmit information without transmitting energy. Fourth,
torsion fields are not required to follow the superposition principle.10
Torsion fields are generated by spin (considering classical spin) or by
angular momentum. There exist both right and left torsion fields (depending on the spin
orientation). As the location of the atoms within a molecule and their spin orientation is
due to their underlying physical characteristics, the superposition of torsion fields
generated by the atomic and nuclear spins of each molecule determines the intensity of
torsion field in the space surrounding the molecule as a whole. While an amorphous or
nonaligned substance would therefore not have such an aggregate effect, a substance with
aligned molecules (i.e. crystal) would have an aggregate effect in terms of its torsion
field. The superposition of all these torsion fields determines the intensity and spatial
configuration of the characteristic torsion field of that substance. Thus, each substance
possesses its own characteristic torsion field.
The property which is open to influence by torsion fields is spin. The
structure of the torsion field of every object can be changed by the influence of an
external torsion field. As a result of such an influence, the new configuration of the
torsion field will be fixed as a metastable state (as a polarized state) and will remain
intact even after the source of the external torsion field is moved to another area of
space. Thus torsion fields of certain spatial configuration can be "recorded" on
any physical or biological object.
The following fundamentally important fact should be emphasized. In the
framework of the theory of electro-torsion interactions, it is shown that if electrostatic
or electromagnetic fields exist in some region of space, then there always exists torsion
fields in that region of space. Electrostatic or electromagnetic fields without a torsion
component do not exist. On the strict level this is shown by G.I. Shipov.11
Strong torsion fields are generated by high electrical potentials and by devices with
organized circular or spiral electromagnetic processes.
According to Panov et al.,11 "Gravitation
and torsion fields manifest themselves as they are; whereas, electromagnetic fields always
contain a torsion component and this is an essential fact. Torsion fields will appear in
both electrostatic and electromagnetic radiation. Inability to understand this has often
been the cause of fruitless attempts to explain many of the phenomena related to sources
of electromagnetic radiation in terms of purely electromagnetic phenomena."11
It is further supportive of the theory linking the gamma radiation
fluctuations observed during healing energy therapy sessions and torsion fields when one
considers how torsion fields are monitored. "An alternative procedure for detecting
and estimating torsion field has been proposed recently, consisting in measurement of
natural radioactive background with some kind of ionizing radiation sensor. Placing a
pulse counting device (Geiger or solid-state scintillation counter) in the area exposed to
torsion field one can obtain a corresponding estimate of the field. Sensitivity of
ionizing radiation sensors is several orders of magnitude higher than that of quartz ones,
but the latter are more stable as compared to sensors of all other types."11
Thus, what has been observed in repeated experimental tests monitoring gamma count
fluctuations during alternative healing sessions may be directly related to torsion
V. Torsion fields, radiation hormesis, and bioenergy
The theory linking biopositive physiological effects of bioenergy
therapies with radiation hormesis has been well described.4,5 Radiation
hormesis is the concept of using small doses of ionizing radiation in a manner which has a
beneficial affect on the body. In summary, whole body exposures of mammals to low-dose
irradiation (doses <10 cGy/y; <10 rad/y) has been found to stimulate major
physiologic parameters including reproduction, growth, muscular development, mental
acuity, cell repair systems (DNA, RNA, membranes and shock proteins), and immune
Similar biopositive effects have been noted following bioenergy healing
therapies including reduced anxiety in hospitalized cardiovascular patients,15
chemotherapy oncology patients,16 and premature neonates.17 Other
research has shown bioenergy therapies reduce tension headache pain17 and
dramatically increase the rate of healing of dermal punch wounds.18 One pilot
study demonstrated a decrease in the concentration of suppressor T-cells implying an
increased immune response.19 A separate study showed significant changes in
hemoglobin and hematocrit values after treatment.20
Work by renowned Chinese scientist Dr. Shu-Zheng Liu of the MH
Radiobiology Research Unit of Norman Bethune University demonstrates that in both human
populations and animal studies low-dose radiation (LDR) stimulates the immunological
responses.21 The up-regulation of immunity following LDR involves a series of
cellular and molecular reactions as well as their systemic regulation. The results
obtained by Lui and many others have compelled researchers to conclude that whole-body
irradiation (WBI) with X- and gamma-rays in the dose range within 0.2 Gy has definite
positive effect on the immune system which can be considered as beneficial to the
Similar types of improved immune responses have been reported by the
Russian scientists with the use of generated torsion fields. "In a laboratory of
radiobiology of Perm University we have investigated the effect of static torsion field on
mice. . . The experiments have shown that torsion field has immune-stimulating effect
showing itself in the activation of both cellular and humoral parts of the immune system.
Being 53.3% for the control mice, the content of rosette forming cells was a high as 71.0%
(p<.001) for the mice subjected to the action of torsion radiation. Appreciable
differences in the response of the humoral part of the immune system for the unexposed and
exposed mice were also detected: the titer of antibodies being 8.33 for the former and
11.70 for the latter."11
VI. Interacting with the Vacuum
It is therefore postulated here that bioenergy healers are creating
permutations in the Vacuum or zero-point field (ZPF) via torsion fields, which, in turn,
change the characteristics of the source mass m (see Figure 1). For this
discussion, the Vacuum/ZPF is being defined as "the locus of a vast energy field that
is neither classically electromagnetic nor gravitational, nor yet nuclear in nature.
Instead, it is the originating source of the known electromagnetic, gravitational, and
nuclear forces and fields. It is the originating source of matter itself."
(causing heightened electromagnetic \|/ fields in
the surrounding the hands)
alteration of the torsion field
distortion of Vacuum/ZPF
(radiation hormesis) \|/
restoration of substance equilibrium
This spin compensation, posited to be induced by heightened
electromagnetic fields surrounding the hands of bioenergy healers (charge q), alters the
torsion field and creates new annihilation/energy opportunities for the source.
Furthermore, preliminary data collected to test this theory demonstrate a
"Rubberband Effect" resulting from the healers intervention with
matter-based substances and their fields. To explain the effect, one can use the example
of an unstretched rubberband of a certain length (say 2"):
When force q is exerted on point B such that the rubberband (mass m)
is stretched it will assume a new length of 3":
This, however, puts the system out of equilibrium such that when the
force, or energy, dissipates, the rubberband does not immediately go back to a stable
position 2" but, first, overcompensates by going to 1":
In a recent gravity-shielding experiment involving lentil beans, the rest
mass (pre-therapy) was 37.545 gms. When the bioenergy healers energized it in a direction
such that it reached a peak by decreasing in mass by about 0.1 gm (this was replicated in
a second energizing session). This "stretched" the mass of the beans such that
when the energy dissipated overnight it did not return to its normal rest mass (37.545)
but over compensated by a full gram.
Likewise, a replication of the test involving the same healers under more
stringently controlled conditions, e.g., test mass enclosed behind glass windows, resulted
in the same rubberband effect only in reverse. The test mass initially got heavier but
subsequently rebounded to a lighter than pre-test weight. Several attempts to replicate
these results by non-therapists demonstrated that the test mass could uniformly be made
heavier; however, the rebound effect only returned the mass to its pre-test level and not
A second series of preliminary experiments with bioenergy healers
demonstrated a similar rubberband effect. In a radioactive decay rate study, which tested
the ability of the healers to alter the constant gamma decay rate of Cs-137, the results
indicated that the Cs-137 peak increased at some point during the therapy session but,
post-therapy, plummeted to a level below the pre-test average (testing is still underway
with additional healers and controls).
Russian researchers have theorized that torsion fields may have both an
elastic effect and a residual effect: both noticed in the previously described experiments
with bioenergy healers. "The opinion that the Vacuum behaves as a super-fluid is
commonly accepted. There are also researchers who believe that Physical Vacuum behaves as
an elastic solid, precisely as aether was regarded at the times of I. Newton.. . Another
feature of torsion fields must be mentioned. Just as a magnet produces residual
magnetization in a ferro-magnet, the torsion source creates residual
polarization through acting upon the classical spin both at the levels of substance and
the Physical Vacuum."3
VII. Gamma radiation, torsion fields, and psi-phenomena
Thus far it has been demonstrated and postulated that there is a
connection between bioenergy healers, gamma radiation, and torsion fields. Is there also a
possible link to the unexplained psi-phenomona that have perplexed scientists and
theologians for centuries? According to the Russian pioneers in torsion field research,
just as in electricity, the elementary particle charges are the primary source of field
where the elementary particle spins are the primary sources of torsion field. However,
gamma photons have also been identified as primary sources of torsion field.3
Furthermore, it has been stated and verified that the electromagnetic field can generate
the torsion one. Thus, it stands to reason, that healers who can consciously increase the
electromagnetic field surrounding their hands and, likewise, cause significant
fluctuations in external gamma radiation around a subjects body, are also creating
permutations in the torsion field and, subsequently, the Vacuum itself.
This new paradigm describing the "Spin Doctor," advances our
scientific understanding of bioenergy healing modalities by analyzing studies and data in
order to develop a theory that takes into account our current understanding of physics and
expands upon it. Too often data which does not fit our current understanding is ignored
rather than trying to develop a theory which can explain the previous data as well as the
As a result of this new paradigm, we can now begin to understand, and thus
demystify, the origins and actions of the "imaginary" aether of healing
energies. This new model takes into account the well-known, and documented, beneficial
effects of low-dose radiation as a potential mechanism in bioenergy healing. Furthermore,
the acceptance and appreciation of torsion fields, with their influencable spin
characteristics both in defining and refining matter, opens a new perspective of
scientific exploration into psi-phenomena. Possibly, we can conclude that life, and even
mind, may be a manifestation of the constant, albeit subtle, interaction of the wave
packets classically known as "matter" with the underlying physically real Vacuum
* I will use the term "Vacuum" in the sense that the Russians
refer to a Physical Vacuum or which we refer to as quantum vacuum. The Russian term has a
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I would like to thank Donald Reed, mathematician and physicist, for his
gracious assistance in providing me with the Russian research on torsion fields and for
reviewing my preliminary paper. I would also like to thank Dr. Harold Fox, and his staff,
at the Journal of New Energy for their help in locating references for this work.